GENEROSITY


1. What criterion does the Qur’an set in regard to spending in the way of Allah?
Islam encourages generosity and discourages miserliness. One needs to strike a balance in spending. Neither become too generous to the extent of becoming a destitute nor be miserly!
2. What is the counsel of the Prophet concerning ‘sadaqah’?
The Prophet urged Muslims to adopt moderation in spending money in meeting one’s own needs, and those of one’s dependants. Muslims are enjoined to spend from ‘whatever one can spare’.
3. What is the best Sadaqah according to a Hadith?
“The best Sadaqah is what comes out of sufficient resources and, in making it, you begin with your dependants”. The best sadaqah, therefore, is that which starts from one’s own home.
4. The hand of Allah is full. Comment.
Allah gives abundantly to those who spend in His Cause. There is no limit in Allah bestowing His Blessings upon His servants.
5. What evils come out of miserliness?
* Murder
* Greed and jealousy
* Treating unlawful as lawful
6. A Hadith mentions the story of the owner of an orchard. What economic policy had he adopted? What was its reward? What lesson should we learn from it?
* Assessing the profit from the harvest
* Giving away one-third of the harvest as charity
* Keeping one-third of the harvest for personal and family use
* Reinvest the remaining one-third
The reward was that he got exclusive heavenly blessings in the form of water which is a vital resource for irrigation.
The moral of the story: ‘enjoy the fruits of the hard work and also don’t deprive the poor of their share. Use resources wisely and keep the future in focus.’
7. What parable does the Qur’an use to illustrate the reward of those who spend in the way of Allah?
The parable of those who spend in the way of Allah is that of a grain out which grow seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains.
8. Write a short note on the Prophet’s generosity.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the most generous of all. He never denied anyone anything. 
Once he said, “If Mount of Uhud be changed for me into gold, I would never have it that three days should pass and the money still be lying with me.”
At the beginning of his illness, before his death, the Prophet had in his house seven dinars; he ordered his relatives to give away even that money to the poor. 

THE RIGHTEOUS WIFE

1. Describe the role of marriage as the basis of Islamic society.
The institution of marriage plays an important role in Muslim society. Allah has caused love and mercy to flow from it in order to establish in the home an atmosphere of tenderness and affection. Marriage is the basis to remain within the limits set forth by Allah. It establishes a moral society devoid of illicit relationships. One of the main objectives of marriage is to found a family which will contribute to the strength of Islam and community.

2. What is the responsibility of believing parents towards their children?
* To raise children according to the Islamic principles and beliefs.
* To provide them best education and moral training.

3. How should children be brought up and trained in a Muslim family?
Children are a trust from Allah. Parents must instil love of religion and fear of Allah in the minds and hearts of their children. There are various ways how a Muslim parent can bring up and train children, some of which are as follows:
1- Showing the values of good deeds and their effects on the individuals and society; also showing the effects of bad deeds, all within the child’s capability of understanding.
2- Parents should be a good example in their behavior because children like to imitate their parents in their sayings and their deeds.
3- Teaching the child the religious principles and tutoring him in worship, taking into account the child’s capability of understanding. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: “Order your children to pray at the age of seven.”
4- Treating children nicely and kindly.
5- One of the important things that parents must teach their children is to choose the good company and to the avoid the bad ones, because children are always influenced by the company they keep. The bad behavior can be easily transmitted through bad company.
6- Encouraging the child’s sense of belonging to the Muslim Ummah, by teaching him of the brotherhood between Muslims, teaching him to care for Muslims in any land, and that he is part of the Muslim body, to feel joy when Muslims are joyous, to feel sad for Muslims’ sadness.
7. Taking children to the masjid.
8. Teaching them the history of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and his companions and the history of Islam, bearing in mind the child’s capability of understanding.

4. What is the Qur’anic guiding principle in matter of marriage?
* ‘Corrupt women for corrupt men and corrupt men for corrupt women;
good women for good men and good men for good women’.
* ‘the fornicator shall marry none but a woman who fornicates’.

5. What criterion does the Hadith, mentioned in this lesson, set for a believer in the choice of spouse? What is the wisdom in it?
Religion and piety must be the criterion while choosing one’s life partner. Piety will lead the couple to obey the commands of Allah and fulfil their rights and obligations. Consequently peace and security will prevail in the family.

6. What does the expression ‘may your hand be smeared with dust’ mean?
The Arabs use this expression to encourage someone to do the desired action.

7. Marriage to an idolater or an idolatress is forbidden in Islam. Explain.
Marriage means living under one roof in harmony, love and peace. This will happen only when one’s spouse is of one’s belief system. Marrying someone with conflicting beliefs not only brings about disaster in the family but also defeats the very purpose of marriage.

8. What are the prohibited degrees of marriage?
Prohibited to you for marriage are – Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father’s sisters, mother’s sisters, brother’s daughters, sister’s daughters, foster-mothers, foster-sisters, your wives’ mothers, your step-daughters, wives of your sons proceeding from your loins, and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time; Mushrik men and women until they believe.

9. Seeing the woman to whom one proposes marriage is permissible in Islam. Explain.
In order to avoid future regrets, a Muslim boy is allowed to see the girl to whom one proposes marriage. Here seeing also means knowing about her religious nature. The same is true for a Muslim girl.

10. What are the benefits of marriage? What part may a religious faith play in building a happy marriage?

Some of the benefits of marriage are:
A morally clean society
Prevention and elimination of illicit sex
Peace, love and harmony between the couples,
Adding strength to one’s religion and community.
Continuation of human race.

Religious faith and righteousness keeps the family well knitted with peace and harmony prevailing at home.

11. In Muslim family, what are the rights and the responsibilities of
(a) the husband and (b) the wife?
The Wife’s Rights: The Husband’s Responsibilities:
1. To treat his wife with honesty, kindness, honour, and patience; and not to cause her any harm or grief.
2. Have full responsibility for providing food, shelter, clothing, general care and wellbeing.
The Husband’s Rights: The wife’s Responsibilities:
1. The wife must be faithful, trustworthy, and honest.
2. To take care of his possessions and children
3. Not to do anything against the wishes of her husband.

THE EXPENDITURE OF ZAKAH

1. What is the importance of Zakah in Islam? 
Zakah, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a compulsory act of worship and one of the basic principles of Islamic Economy. Mere verbal belief in Islam has little weight unless accompanied by Zakah in practice. Not giving Zakah amounts to kufr (disbelief).


2. What is the primary objective of Zakah? 
The primary objective of Zakah is religious and spiritual in that it removes man’s greed for wealth and makes him come closer to Allah. It provides social security and helps bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.


3. What did Abu Bakr as-Siddiq do when some tribes refused to pay Zakah? 
He waged war against them until they agreed to give Zakah.


4. Zakah is a form of social security. Discuss. 
Zakah is an important means of providing social security. Islam refuses to allow individual members of society to be denied the basic needs of life, like food, clothing, and shelter. It is necessary that these things are available to all members of society. It is made available through the institution of Zakah. The poor, unfortunate and helpless Muslims have a right in the wealth of the rich.


5. Write a short note on each of the following: 
    1. People who are entitled to receive Zakah: 
Eight categories of Muslim people are entitled to receive Zakah:
1. The poor – The ones who cannot pay for their barest essentials.
2. The needy -The ones who live under great hardships and difficulties but do not beg from anybody.
3. Those appointed by an Islamic state to collect and distribute Zakah.
4. These are those people who might enter or who have already entered Islam.
5. For freeing people from slavery and bondage.
6. Those who are in debt. Not to be given to those living in luxury but to those living a normal life. For eg. Someone who has gone bankrupt because of job loss and is overburdened with debt.
7. Fi Sabeelillah – In the way of Allah. This can be for any good cause. For eg. Building Muslim clinics and hospitals, to pay for the studies of the poor Muslim students.
8. Traveller. This refers to a traveller, for instance who has lost his wallet and has to get back to his home.

  2. Tips on Spending in the way of Allah: 
1. Give only to please Allah.
2. Give only good things.
3. Don’t injure the feelings of the poor and needy by stressing your generosity.
4. Give to the deserving.
5. Guard against misuse. Do not give for evil purposes.
6. Do not delay the payment. Give in time.


6. How does Zakah differ from Sadaqah? 
Zakah is obligatory while Sadaqah is optional. Zakah must be given once in a year. Sadaqah can be given as many times. Zakah is due on rich Muslims. Any Muslim can give Sadaqah. Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam while Sadaqah is not a pillar of Islam.

SO TAUGHT OUR PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلم

(REFER TO AHADITH 7 to 12 IN THE TEXT BOOK)


Read the following Ahadith and answer the questions that follow: 


1. No sin is more swiftly punished than oppression and the breaking of family ties
a. What is a sin? Sin is a deed the doing of which pricks one’s heart, and one doesn’t want others to know about it.


b. What do you mean by ‘no sin is more swiftly punished than oppression and the breaking of family ties’? 
It means Allah is quicker to punish those sinners who commit oppression, and indulge in breaking the family ties.


c. What is oppression? Oppression is tyranny. It is to treat people with harshness and cruelty. It is also to deny and violate the rights of others.


d. What is meant by breaking of family ties? 
It is the severing of family relationships.


e. The person who breaks the family ties, will he go to Paradise? Why? 
No, he won’t because the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم once said, “the one who severs family relationships will not enter Paradise”.


2. “There are three things which save and three things which destroy: Those which save are: Fear of Allah in secret and in public, moderation in poverty and in wealth, and speaking the truth whether angry or calm. Those which destroy are: passion which is pursued, avarice and self-admiration”. 


a. What do you mean by ‘moderation in poverty and in wealth’? It means adopting and maintaining balance & moderation in spending one’s money, be it in poverty or in plenty.


b. What is avarice? 
Avarice is to have an extreme desire for riches and to be greedy of wealth.


c. What is meant by ‘passion, which is pursued’?
It is a continuous involvement and showing of interest in the feelings of love, hate or anger. For example, a person who has great enthusiasm in pursuing a path of lust or sex is said to have a passion for sex.


d. What is self-admiration and why is it a cause of one’s destruction?
Self-admiration is to take pleasure in talking about oneself or boasting about one’s personality, achievement or abilities. It is to have pride and satisfaction in oneself. The self-admirer thinks that he exists on his own and that he can do without the help of Allah. This ungratefulness nature will lead him to destruction.


3. “On the Day of Judgement no step of a servant of Allah shall slip until he has answered concerning four things: 1. His body and how he used it 2. His life and how he spent it 3. His wealth and how he earned it, and 4. His knowledge and what he did with it.”


a. Mention the four things about which every person will have to give account of on the Day of Judgement? 
The four things are: 1. His body and how he used it 2. His life and how he spent it 3. His wealth and how he earned it, and 4. His knowledge and what he did with it.


4. “When a person dies, his deed come to an end except in respect of three matters which he leaves behind: A continuing charity, knowledge from which benefit could be derived and righteous children who pray for him”. 


a. Explain the above-mentioned hadith. 
This hadith tells us in clear terms that after a person’s death, his Book of Deeds is closed but for three things which he leaves behind him in this world. That is, the rewards of these three things will be credited in one’s Book of Deeds even after one’s death. The three things are i) A continuing charity ii) beneficial knowledge and iii) righteous children’s supplication for their deceased father or mother.


b. What is meant by ‘a continuing charity’?
It is called ‘sadaqah jaariyah’, that is a charity whose benefits people continue to reap even after one’s death. For example: A Muslim built a mosque or planted a tree. After building the mosque or planting a tree he dies. The mosque or the tree is of use and benefit to others. The rewards of people praying in the mosque or drawing benefit out of the tree will go to that Muslim.


5. “The generous person is near to Allah, near to men, near to Heaven, far from Hell-fire. The miser is far from Allah, far from men, far from Heaven, near to Hell-fire. And ignorant person who is generous is better in the sight of Allah than the worshipper who is miser”. 


a. What is the Prophet trying to emphasize in this hadith? 
In this hadith, the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم is motivating Muslims to adopt generous attitude in them and to shun miserliness. He is emphasizing that generosity and kind-heartedness will lead a person to Paradise and miserliness could take him to Hell-fire.


6. “Whoever desires to become the strongest of men, let him put his trust in Allah”. 
a. How can a Muslim who puts his trust in Allah become strongest of men? 
A Muslim who puts his trust in Allah is relieved of worries, anxiety and pessimism. He is free from hopelessness. He feels satisfied in what he does because he is confident that his Almighty Lord will help him in his endeavors. Trust in Allah makes one physically, mentally and emotionally stronger.

AL JIHAD IN ISLAM

Q1) What is the meaning of the word al-Jihad? 
The word Jihad is derived from Jahada, which means striving or exerting oneself against any evil.


Q2) What is Jihad an-Nafs? 
It means man’s struggle against his own passions and weaknesses. The Prophet Muhammad described Jihad an-Nafs as the ‘greatest Jihad.’


Q3) What does al-Jihad signify in Shariah? 
In Shariah, it signifies the exertion of one’s power and ability to the utmost of one’s capacity in the way of Allah. It is Fard Kifayah (an obligation that must be discharged by the Muslim community as a whole) and Fard Ain (obligation that must be performed by each individual Muslim) as well.


Q4) In Hadith the word Jihad is not exclusively used for fighting. Explain. 
Jihad is a comprehensive word. It does not only include fighting. Prophet Muhammad said, “The hajj is the most excellent form of Jihad.” He also said, “The highest kind of Jihad is to say the truth before an oppressive ruler.” These Ahadith are evidence to show that Jihad is not exclusively war or fighting.


Q5) What is the viewpoint of Shariah regarding war? 
Islam makes war permissible for Muslims only in self-defence. It does not permit us to start a war of aggression. When the freedom of a Muslim’s Faith is at risk, he is bound to take up arms in Jihad. Further, a believer can not afford to leave his fellow-believers defenceless. However, Jihad is not an offensive means to spread Islam.


Q6) What makes Jihad a sacred pursuit like Prayer and devotion? 
It is a sacred pursuit because it has been commanded by Allah in the Qur’an. As Salah and Ibadah brings us to closer to Allah, striving in His cause also brings us closer to Him. We have been commanded by Allah to do Jihad with our utmost ability.


Q7) On whom is Jihad obligatory? 
Jihad, striving against evil, is obligatory on every sane, adult male and female Muslim. But fighting in the war is obligatory on every sane, adult male Muslims only.


Q8) In what conditions is Jihad considered to be Fard Kifayah? 
As long a group of Muslims keeping performing the Jihad against evil, for example, it would be considered to be Fard Kifayah but when a certain evil is posing a threat to the existence of Muslims, then Jihad would cease to be Fard Kifayah and it would become Fard Ain.


Q9) What does the expression Fard Kifayah mean? 
It signifies a collective duty of the Muslim community so that if some people carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy; but if no one carries it out all incur a collective guilt.


Q10) When does the Jihad become Fard Ain? When does Islam permit war?
1) If the disbelievers enter or invade a land of the Muslims 2) If the rows meet in battle and they begin to approach each other. 3) If the Imam calls a person or a people to march forward in Jihad. 4) If the disbelievers capture and imprison a group of Muslims.
Islam does not allow killing of a human being merely because he or she does not believe in Islam. It permits war only in self-defence, that is when non-Muslims oppress Muslims, or interfere with the spread of message to mankind.


Q11) What role may Muslim women play in the time of war?
In the time of war, Muslim women can give water to the soldiers and can nurse the wounded.

Some Overwhelming Events of The Day of Judgement

Surah Yaseen, Part 4
1. What is meant by “They are waiting for a single blast?”
The Day of Judgment will come sooner than one expects. It will strike all of a sudden, when unbelievers would be disputing amongst themselves about things of faith!
2. Which angel will blow the Trumpet?
Angel Israfil will blow the Trumpet.
3. What will be the aftermath of the first blowing of the Trumpet?
With the first blowing of the trumpet, whoever is in the Heaven and the earth will swoon away, except such as will please Allah.
4. What will happen when the Trumpet will be sounded a second time?
The dead will rise from their graves and hasten to their Lord.
5. What will be the condition of the dead on the rising from their sleep?
The dead will rise from their sleep as in a stupor. They will be confused in new conditions. They will gradually regain memory and their personality, saying “Alas for us! Who roused us from our sleep?”
6. What are some of the delights that Allah has prepared for believers in Paradise?
They will be given fruits and anything they ask for. They will recline on the sublime couches of the shade of the Gardens. They will reach the highest grade of bliss – Peace and salutations from Allah, the Most Merciful.
7. The unbelievers will be unable to defend their past actions and attitudes. How?
The unbelievers have rejected all warnings and guidance. In the Day of Judgement, they wouldn’t be able escape the Punishment of ‘Hell Fire’. They will be unable to defend their past actions and attitudes. Their silence will not matter as their own hands and feet will speak against them.
8. What warning is contained in the verses 66-67 for the unbelievers?
The verses clearly refer to the fact that Allah has warned them time and time again. He has blessed them with eyes to see the Right Path but they refused to heed to the warnings. As everything is possible with Allah, these verses warn them that there is still time for them for correction.
So, let them change their attitude and take advantage of the respite given to them!
9. The worldly life is transient. Discuss.
The life of a human being undergoes a series of transformations: Infancy, toddler, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, old age, second childhood.
Man must think logically and wisely and not only believe in the beauty of creation but also recognise the power of the Creator! Allah has gifted us with Guidance through the Qur’an and Sunnah. So we need to do our best for the Hereafter as Judgement Day can strike us any time!

The Death of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم

1. What did the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم tell his daughter Fatimah after observing the I’tikaf of Ramadan that preceded the Farewell Pilgrimage?
The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم said to his daughter ‘Fatimah رضي الله عنها  “Jibril recites the Qur’an to me and I to him once every year, but this year he has recited with me twice. I cannot but think my time has come.”
2. When did the Prophet’s illness begin?
The Prophet’s illness began one night not long after he ordered preparations for the Syrian Campaign, and before the army had left; he went to the grave yard called al-Baqi, in the small hours of the night and prayed forgiveness for the people of the cemetery. It was at dawn that day that his head began to ache unusually. It was the twenty-ninth of the month of Safar, 11 A.H.
3. How long did it last?
The Prophet’s illness lasted about fourteen days.
4. Where did the Prophet choose to stay during his last illness?
He chose A’ishah رضي الله عنها house for his stay during his last illness.
5. What did the Prophet tell his companions from the pulpit some five days before his death?
The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم told them, “There is a slave amongst the slaves of Allah to whom Allah has offered the choice between this world and that which is with Him, and the slave has chosen that which is with Him.”
6. What did he say of Abu Bakr?
He said : “O People, the most generous towards me with regard to his companionship and property was Abu Bakr, And were I to choose anyone but my Lord to be my dearest friend, indeed I would choose Abu Bakr, but for him I cherish Islamic brotherliness and love.”
7. What secret did the Prophet confide to Fatimah, a little before his death?
The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم told Fatimah رضي الله عنها that “he would die in this illness”, and so she wept. Then he told her that “Fatimah would be the first of the people of his house to follow him”, and therefore she laughed.
8. What were his last words?
“O Allah! The Sublime Companion”
9. What was the effect of the sad news on the Companions?
They were shaken with grief and confusion, and ran to the Masjid Nabawi where the pointless debate ensued and threatened to take a serious turn. Some thought that he would outlive them all and other generations to come.

THE LAST DAY IS A REALITY

(Surah Yaseen, Part 3)
1. Allah is able to restore the mankind to life after death on the Day of Judgement. Substantiate your answer with the Verses you have learnt in this lesson.
Allah says, “A sign for them is dead earth. We give it life, and produce from it grains, which they eat”.
From dead matter, Allah’s creative act produces life and living matter. We see the creative process of Allah at work and the cycle of life and death goes on and on.
As Allah is able to restore life to dead earth, so He will be giving life to dead men on the Day of Resurrection.
2. Creation of the Day and the Night is a clear sign of the Greatness and the Power of Allah. Discuss.
The day and the night are the two signs of Allah. This gift of Allah is good for us in many ways. We can arrange for our livelihood during the day and take rest and have peace at night. The daily rising and setting of the sun gives us the computation of days and years. The alternation of day into night and vice versa is so perfect that man doesn’t feel any discomfort during the alternation. These are the signs for men to understand the power of Allah’s Greatness and Glory.
3. What is meant by the stations of the moon? What does the expression ‘kal urjunil qadim’ mean?
The stations of the moon are the process of waxing and waning. The expression ‘kal urjunil qadim’ means ’like an old date-stalk, dried up and curved’. It refers to the moon running through all her stations, increasing and decreasing, until it disappears, and then reappears as a crescent.
4. ‘We made similar vessels for them to ride’. Explain.
The mighty ships sailing through water carrying men and goods safely are a sign for man. Apart from covering all kinds of sea-craft, ‘similar vessels’ include all the modern means of road transport and aircraft, which ‘swims’ through the air instead of through water. All these are Allah’s arrangement for man on earth!
5. How do the unbelievers react when they are urged to spend in the way of Allah?
The Verse says, “When they are told: ‘Spend of what Allah has given you; the unbelievers say to those who believe, why should we feed those whom Allah would have fed if He pleased?’
6. Allah has created pairs of everything. What is meant by it?
Allah has not only created pairs among human beings, men and women, but also in vegetation, among animals, birds etc. There are pairs of opposite forces in nature, for instance positive and negative electricity. Day and night, truth and falsehood, right and wrong, plus and minus, good and evil – all these have been created in pairs. Allah being a Superb Creator is a perfect sign for people to submit to His Glory and Majesty!
7. Explain the significance of the belief in the Aakhirah – one of the three basic concepts of Islam. (Tawhid, Risalah and Aakhirah)
The significance can be gauged from the fact that without the belief in Aakhirah, all our beliefs in Tawhid and Risalah would be meaningless.
We do good things and prevent ourselves from doing bad things because we know that there is Aakhirah wherein Allah will reward us or punish us depending on our deeds in this world. As a matter of fact, belief in the concept of God and Religion itself would be meaningless if one doesn’t believe in the concept of Aakhirah.
Now, in order to know what will make us or mar us in the Aakhirah, we need Divine Guidance (Al Hidayah) which is provided through the Messengers of Allah (Risalah) and the quintessence of all beliefs in Islam is the true belief in the Oneness of Allah (Tawhid)

THE PROPHET OF MERCY

1. What comments does the Qur’an offer on the temperament of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم ?
Two verses can be cited:
a. “He is eager for your happiness, full of concern for the believers, compassionate and kind”.
b. “It was through Allah’s Mercy that you were gentle to them; had you been stern and hard of heart, they would surely have scattered away from you”.
2. What did Ali ibn Abi Talibرضي الله عنه   say about the nature of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم ?
He said, “The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم was benevolent, lavishly generous and exceedingly kind-hearted. It was a pleasure to have his company. Whoever met him for the first time was filled with awe but with closer contact became attached to him”.
3. What did a man complain against Mu’adh ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه ? What was the Prophet’s reaction to it? What does this incident signify?
A man complained that Mu’adh ibn Jabal رضي الله عنه , while leading Salah, used to recite such long Surahs of the Qur’an that it had become a hindrance for him to offer Salah.
The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم became very angry at Mu’adh رضي الله عنه and he said, “He who happens to lead the Prayers should recite short chapters, for in the congregation of those that pray there are the weak and the old”. This incident signifies that the Imam should recite short surahs rather than lengthy ones.
4. Describe two incidents from the life of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم that illustrate his mercifulness.
a. Being extremely kind- hearted, his eyes brimmed with tears at the slightest sign of cruelty. Once a man threw a goat on its side and began to sharpen his knife to slaughter it. The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم happened to witness it. He said, “Do you want to kill it twice? Why did you not sharpen the knife before throwing it down”.
b. The incident of a man complaining to the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم   about Mu’adh reciting long chapters of the Qur’an while leading the prayers and the Prophet’s angry response to it is sufficient to say that the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّمم was very kind to people even in matters of religion.

SO TAUGHT OUR PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلّى الله عليه وسلّم

AHADITH NO. 1 – 6 

1. He is not of us who shows no respect for our elders, or who has no compassion for our young, or has no appreciation for the rights of our learned.
a. What is meant by ‘He is not of us’?
It means that he is neither a true Muslim nor does he belong to the true Muslim community.
b. How can one appreciate the rights of the learned people?
By respecting them for the knowledge they possess, honouring them by giving due position and status they deserve and heeding to their advice.
c. Mention a few points on how to be compassionate towards young.
* Being merciful and kind to children and young people;
* Not beating them, not using harsh words while talking to them;
* Appreciating them when they do good things;
* Politely rebuking them when they do bad things;
* Giving them the right to enjoy their childhood, like for example by abolishing child labour.
2. No one among you shall be a true believer unless he likes for his brother what he likes for himself.
a. Explain this hadith.
A true believer in Islam is the one who wishes for his fellow believers the same he wishes for himself. He cares for him like he would for his own brother. There is no envy or jealousy in his heart against them. He wishes good for his fellow brothers always.
b. What does this hadith encourage among Muslims?
This hadith tells us about the importance of brotherhood in the Muslim Ummah. If our faith in Allah is strong then nothing can divide us. The brotherhood system is clearly an example of Islam’s solid commitment to the establishment of a brotherhood based not on color, language, race, or ethnicity, but purely on faith. Muslims need to conscious of this system and our community leadership should be proactive to implement the Islamic ideals.
3. Do not think evil of others, nor probe into others’ affairs, nor incite one against the other.  Avoid hatred and jealousy. Do not unnecessarily oppose each other. Always remain the slave of Allah, and live as brothers to each other.
Explain the above-mentioned hadith.
In this hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) has highlighted the aspect of maintaining good relationship among the believers.
The following is learned from the hadith:
1. We should think well of others.
2. We should not unnecessarily interfere in others’ affairs.
3. We should not harm others, nor do anything which may create hatred in others’ hearts.
4. We should not be jealous of one another. Jealousy spoils relationships between people rather than creating love between them.
5. Having different opinions is not bad. But unnecessarily arguing leads to rifts.
6. Our faith in Allah unites us. Therefore, we should do everything permissible and possible to maintain brotherhood in our Ummah.
4. By Him in whose Hand is my life, I love that I die in the way of Allah and made alive, that I die again and again given life only to die again in the way of Allah.
a. What do you learn from the above hadith?
The best way to depart from this world is through martyrdom. For that reason our beloved Prophet (peace be upon him) said he would love to die again and again as a martyr.
Martyrdom is so highly valued that a truly devout Muslim would wish to return to earth many times in order to repeat the experience.
In another hadith, the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “Nobody who dies and finds good from Allah (in the Hereafter) would wish to come back to this world even if he were given the whole world and whatever is in it, except the martyr who, on seeing the superiority of martyrdom, would like to come back to the world and get killed again (in Allah’s Cause).”
5. Allah, the Exalted is He, has decreed: O sons of Adam! If you commit yourselves and worship Me then I will enrich your hearts and deliver you from poverty. But if you refuse, I will fill your hearts with concern, and allow you to stagnate in the poverty of your own souls.
a. Does our worshipping Allah benefit Him?
Our believing and worshipping Allah benefits us only. It does not benefit Allah in any way as He is the Self-Sufficient Master Who does not need us, nor our worship.
 b. What is Hadith Qudsi?
Hadith Qudsi is a sacred hadith from Allah revealed to the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) which is not a part of the Qur’an.
6. He who establishes a good precedent gets the reward for it and the reward of all who act upon it till the Day of Resurrection without diminishing their reward in the least. And he who sets a bad precedent bears the guilt of it and the guilt of all who act upon it till the Day of Resurrection, without in the least diminishing their guilt.
a.      Explain the above hadith.
 If we set a good example, we will get the reward for it in our life and even after our death. If we set a bad example, we will get punished for it in our life and even after our death. The Prophet has also said, “When a man dies his actions come to an end except for three: an ongoing charity; knowledge that benefits others, or pious offspring who prays for him”.
b.      What is the hadith pointing towards?
The one who begins or initiates any good act, gets the reward not only for beginning or initiating that good act but also gets the reward that is due on all those people who follow his initiation. Likewise, the one who begins or initiates any bad act, gets the punishment not only for beginning or initiating that bad act but also gets the punishment that is due on all those who follow his bad example.


THE FAREWELL PILGRIMMAGE

1. When did the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلم perform the Farewell Pilgrimmage?
The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلم performed his Farewell Pilgrimmage in the year 10 A.H which corresponds to 632 A.D.
2. Why is it called the ‘Farewell Pilgrimmage’?
It is called the ‘Farewell Pilgrimmage’ because on this occasion the Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلم took his final leave of Makkah, and bade a last farewell to the city of his birth.
3. Write down the main points of the Farewell Address of the Prophet  صلّى الله عليه وسلم
  • Sacredness of a Muslim’s life and property
  • The importance of propagating the Message of Islam to all others.
  • Everyone is fully accountable for his/her deeds before Allah.
  •  “Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you.” These words of the prophet are self explanatory.
  • The prohibition of dealing with interest (usury)
  • “You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity.” These words of the prophet are self explanatory.
  • Beware of Satan who works to deviate us from the right path.
  • Men have rights over women and vice-versa
  • Treat women with kindness.
  • The importance of worshiping Allah, offering five daily Salah, fasting in Ramadan, giving charity (Zakah) and performing pilgrimage (Hajj).
  • Equality of mankind: Neither an Arab is superior over a non-Arab, nor a non-Arab over an Arab; neither black over white nor white over black. The standard of man’s superiority is Allah-consciousness and righteous living.
  • Need to establish justice.
  • Islam is the final divine religion, Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلم being the Last Prophet and the Qur’an being the Last Revealed Book of Allah.
  • None can go astray as long as one holds fast to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلم

THE CONQUEST OF MAKKAH

1. In what way did the Quraysh break the Truce of Hudaybiyah?
After the Truce of Hudaybiyah, Bani Bakr became an ally of Quraysh while Bani Khuzaah sided with the Muslims. As per the Truce, no party shall induge in any kind of attack either directly or indirectly.
But when Bani Bakr attacked Bani Khuzaah , while they were asleep, Quraysh helped them with weapons and some of their chiefs took part in the attack. Thus they broke the Truce of Hudaybiyah.
2. Why did the Prophet (peace be upon him) send a man to Makkah?
The Prophet (peace be upon him) sent a man to Makkah to confirm the news that the Quraysh had broken the Treaty of Hudaybiyah.
3. What options did the Prophet place before the Quraysh?
The Prophet (Peace be upon him) placed three alternatives before the Quraysh:
1.      To pay blood-money for the victims of Bani Khuzaah.
2.      To withdraw their support for the section of Bakr involved in the attack.
3.      To declare the Truce of Hudaybiyah to have been broken.
4. What was their reaction to the offer?
They did not agree to the first two alternatives and declared the Truce of Hudaybiyah to be null and void.
5. Why did the Quraysh send Abu Sufyan to Madinah?
After breaking the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Quraysh were greatly troubled as to the possible consequences of what they had done. So they sent Abu Sufyan to Madinah to strengthen the Hudaybiyah Agreement and to prolong its duration
6. What was the outcome of Abu Sufyan’s mission?
All attempts by Abu Sufyan to convince the Prophet and win him over failed. He did not succeed in his mission.
7. How did the Prophet prepare for war on Makkah?
He began to prepare for a campaign. He told Abu Bakr about his plan and instructed him to keep it a secret. He, then, prayed, “O Allah! Take from Quraysh all sight of us and all news of us, what we are about, that we may come suddenly upon them in their land”.
8. What was the strength of the Muslim army?
The total army of Muslims consisted of 10,000 men.
9. What happened when the army was half way?
When they were about half way, they were met by al Abbas bin al Mutallib, the Prophet’s uncle and his family. The Prophet (peace be upon him) invited them to join the campaign, which they did.
10. What strategy did the Prophet employ when the army reached the outskirts of
Makkah? How well did it work?
The Quraysh feared the consequences of having broken the Truce. The Prophet (peace be upon him) was well aware of this, and in order to increase their fears he commanded his men to spread out and each believer to light a fire after dark, from the outskirts of the Sacred Territory, ten thousand fires could be seen burning.
The strategy worked very well as it sent shivers down the spine. The Quraysh were panic-stricken and saw at once the hopelessness of resistance.
11. What did the Prophet (Peace be upon him) do on entering the Holy Mosque?
On entering the Holy Mosque, he rode to the southeast corner of the Ka’bah and reverently touched the Black Stone with his staff.
Then he made the seven rounds of the Ka’bah. Then he turned away from the Ka’bah towards the 360 idols which surrounded it.
He then rode between the idols and the Ka’bah, repeating the verse of the Qur’an, “The Truth has come and falsehood vanished. Truly, falsehood is bound to vanish”.
He then pointed his staff to the idols and pushed each of them, one by one, with his staff. Each idol fell forward on its face.
He then ordered the door of Kab’ah to be opened, walls inside which were full of pictures of deities, be cleaned.
He then addressed the gathering, declaring the glory and unity of Allah and the unity of mankind.
12. What reassurance did the Prophet give to the Ansars?
After the conquest of Makkah, when the Ansars expressed the fear that the Prophet might remain in Makkah, he reassured them that he won’t be staying in Makkah and that he will return to Madinah. He said to them, “Where you live, there will I live, and there shall I die also”.

WIPING OVER THE SOCKS AND THE BANDAGE

1. What is meant by ‘mas’h alal khuffain wal jabirah’?
It means ‘wiping over the socks and the bandage’.

2. Islam does not inflict rigorous rules in anything. Discuss this in regard to the injunction concerning the Mas’h.
Islam does not inflict rigorous rules in anything, the concession of wiping over the socks, has been granted in order to provide relief to the people. In times of intense cold when it is quite hard to wash the feet every time one makes a wodhu, this facility should be considered as a great blessing of Allah upon the believers.

3. What does Hummam رضي الله عنه report regarding wiping over the socks?
He reports: Jarir bin Abdullah رضي الله عنهurinated, then performed ablution and wiped over his socks. It was said to him, “Do you like this? He said, Yes, I saw that Allah’s Messenger (peace be upon him) urinated, then performed ablution and wiped over his socks”.

4. What are the conditions of al-Mas’h?
The conditions of al-Mas’h are two:
1. The socks should be such that conceal the whole foot up to the ankles.
2. The socks should have been put on after performing wodhu.

5. What is the period of Mas’h?
It is 24 hours for those who are at home and 72 hours for travellers.

6. What are the causes that annul al-Mas’h?
    1. Causes that make wodhu void, make Mas’h also void.
    2. Taking off the socks for any reason
    3. Expiry of the prescribed time limite.

7. What is the command of Shariah concerning wiping over the bandage and plaster of wound?
If there is a wound in any of the parts which must be washed in ablution, and if washing that particular part is likely to cause harm, the command of the Shariah is to wipe the bandage or plaster with wet fingers. This has to be done every time at ablution.

THE MISSED PRAYERS

1. What is the importance of Salah in the life of a Muslim?
Salah is central to Islam. It is the core of all piety. It is the first and foremost duty of every Muslim after the declaration of Shahadah. It is the act which distinguishes a Muslim from a Kafir (an unbeliever).
2. Can an adult Muslim be ever exempted from offering Salah?
No, an adult Muslim can never be exempted from offering Salah. However, a Muslim woman is exempted from offering Salah under certain specific cases.
3. What is a Muslim commanded to do when he is not able to offer Salah in its prescribed time?
When a Muslim is not able to offer Salah in its prescribed time due to some genuine reasons, he is commanded to make up for the missed prayers later on promptly.
4. What according to a Hadith is the expiation of a Salah missed due to sleep or forgetfulness?
Its expiation is that the Muslim should offer the missed Salah when he remembers it.
5. What is meant by the expression ‘Qada al-fawait min-as-salawat’?
It means rules regarding the missed prayers.
6. What is the command of Shariah concerning the missed Salah?
a. It is sinful to miss a Salah deliberately or due to negligence. One must repent sincerely and refrain from neglecting one’s duty.
b. With the exception of women in confinement or menstruation and the one who remains unconscious or insane for some time, every adult believer must make up for each of his missed obligatory Salah.
c. If due to a genuine reason, a Salah is missed, one should try to offer it promptly, and avoid delaying it unnecessarily. This is an obligation which must be fulfilled.
7. Who is called the Sahib at-Tartib in the terminology of Shariah?
Sahib at-Tartib is that Muslim who, after having obtained adulthood, has not missed his prayers and if at all missed previously, has made up for them promptly, and now has not more than five missed Prayers to be offered. Such a person may not perform his next Salah at its prescribed time unless he has first performed the missed Prayers in their proper sequence.

THE FRUITS OF FAITH

SURAH YASEEN, Part 2 (Verses 20 – 32)

1. What did the believing man call upon his people to do?
The believing man called upon his people to “follow the Messengers!”.

2. How did they react to his call?
They reacted to his call in a violent way and instead of listening and heeding to his call, they killed him.

3. What lesson does the story of the believing man teach us?
When one comes across the Message of Truth, one should not only believe in the Message but also support the Messenger by helping him in his call towards Truth and fearlessly do everything in one’s might to fight against evil.

4. Taking other gods apart from Allah is a grave error. Discuss.
Allah (One True God) is One and Only. Taking other gods besides Allah is a folly of human mind. It is the greatest blunder a man can make!
The error becomes great when someone considers creations to be worthy of worship. Allah is the One True Creator. He alone deserves to be worshipped.
Those who take other gods besides Allah assume that they will come to their help in the Day of Judgement through intercession. This assumption is utterly stupid!
The ‘gods’ are so powerless that they can neither benefit themselves nor can come to the rescue of others. Benefit or harm comes from Allah who is All-Powerful.

5. What reward did Allah give to the believing man? What was the end of those who did not heed his advice?
The reward was that Allah forgave all his sins and admitted him into Paradise. Those who did not heed his advice were punished severely by Allah. A Mighty Blast devastated the entire town and its people!

6. ‘We did not send down any hosts after him, against his people from heaven, nor do We have to send one’. Explain.
This verse describes what happened to the people of the town after they killed the believing man.
The people of the town planned to stone and punish the three Messengers. To teach them a lesson and to control the forces of evil, Allah does not need an army from heaven to be sent! A single mighty blast is sufficient to raze villages and cities to the ground. The people of the town, therefore, were reduced to silence by a single blast. Neither they nor their pseudo-gods were able to avert the punishment of Allah.

7. Who were the Prophet’s early followers and opponents? Why?
The Quraysh were the early opponents of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) and his early followers were from among the poor and oppressed sections of the Makkan society.
This was because the Prophet (peace be upon him) started his mission from his family who belonged to the Quraysh tribe. Most of them rejected his message and became his early opponents. Those who found the message of the Prophet to be appealing, as it gave them peace and self-respect, accepted his message openly and became his early followers.