GENEROSITY


1. What criterion does the Qur’an set in regard to spending in the way of Allah?
Islam encourages generosity and discourages miserliness. One needs to strike a balance in spending. Neither become too generous to the extent of becoming a destitute nor be miserly!
2. What is the counsel of the Prophet concerning ‘sadaqah’?
The Prophet urged Muslims to adopt moderation in spending money in meeting one’s own needs, and those of one’s dependants. Muslims are enjoined to spend from ‘whatever one can spare’.
3. What is the best Sadaqah according to a Hadith?
“The best Sadaqah is what comes out of sufficient resources and, in making it, you begin with your dependants”. The best sadaqah, therefore, is that which starts from one’s own home.
4. The hand of Allah is full. Comment.
Allah gives abundantly to those who spend in His Cause. There is no limit in Allah bestowing His Blessings upon His servants.
5. What evils come out of miserliness?
* Murder
* Greed and jealousy
* Treating unlawful as lawful
6. A Hadith mentions the story of the owner of an orchard. What economic policy had he adopted? What was its reward? What lesson should we learn from it?
* Assessing the profit from the harvest
* Giving away one-third of the harvest as charity
* Keeping one-third of the harvest for personal and family use
* Reinvest the remaining one-third
The reward was that he got exclusive heavenly blessings in the form of water which is a vital resource for irrigation.
The moral of the story: ‘enjoy the fruits of the hard work and also don’t deprive the poor of their share. Use resources wisely and keep the future in focus.’
7. What parable does the Qur’an use to illustrate the reward of those who spend in the way of Allah?
The parable of those who spend in the way of Allah is that of a grain out which grow seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains.
8. Write a short note on the Prophet’s generosity.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the most generous of all. He never denied anyone anything. 
Once he said, “If Mount of Uhud be changed for me into gold, I would never have it that three days should pass and the money still be lying with me.”
At the beginning of his illness, before his death, the Prophet had in his house seven dinars; he ordered his relatives to give away even that money to the poor. 
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THE RIGHTEOUS WIFE

1. Describe the role of marriage as the basis of Islamic society.
The institution of marriage plays an important role in Muslim society. Allah has caused love and mercy to flow from it in order to establish in the home an atmosphere of tenderness and affection. Marriage is the basis to remain within the limits set forth by Allah. It establishes a moral society devoid of illicit relationships. One of the main objectives of marriage is to found a family which will contribute to the strength of Islam and community.

2. What is the responsibility of believing parents towards their children?
* To raise children according to the Islamic principles and beliefs.
* To provide them best education and moral training.

3. How should children be brought up and trained in a Muslim family?
Children are a trust from Allah. Parents must instil love of religion and fear of Allah in the minds and hearts of their children. There are various ways how a Muslim parent can bring up and train children, some of which are as follows:
1- Showing the values of good deeds and their effects on the individuals and society; also showing the effects of bad deeds, all within the child’s capability of understanding.
2- Parents should be a good example in their behavior because children like to imitate their parents in their sayings and their deeds.
3- Teaching the child the religious principles and tutoring him in worship, taking into account the child’s capability of understanding. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: “Order your children to pray at the age of seven.”
4- Treating children nicely and kindly.
5- One of the important things that parents must teach their children is to choose the good company and to the avoid the bad ones, because children are always influenced by the company they keep. The bad behavior can be easily transmitted through bad company.
6- Encouraging the child’s sense of belonging to the Muslim Ummah, by teaching him of the brotherhood between Muslims, teaching him to care for Muslims in any land, and that he is part of the Muslim body, to feel joy when Muslims are joyous, to feel sad for Muslims’ sadness.
7. Taking children to the masjid.
8. Teaching them the history of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and his companions and the history of Islam, bearing in mind the child’s capability of understanding.

4. What is the Qur’anic guiding principle in matter of marriage?
* ‘Corrupt women for corrupt men and corrupt men for corrupt women;
good women for good men and good men for good women’.
* ‘the fornicator shall marry none but a woman who fornicates’.

5. What criterion does the Hadith, mentioned in this lesson, set for a believer in the choice of spouse? What is the wisdom in it?
Religion and piety must be the criterion while choosing one’s life partner. Piety will lead the couple to obey the commands of Allah and fulfil their rights and obligations. Consequently peace and security will prevail in the family.

6. What does the expression ‘may your hand be smeared with dust’ mean?
The Arabs use this expression to encourage someone to do the desired action.

7. Marriage to an idolater or an idolatress is forbidden in Islam. Explain.
Marriage means living under one roof in harmony, love and peace. This will happen only when one’s spouse is of one’s belief system. Marrying someone with conflicting beliefs not only brings about disaster in the family but also defeats the very purpose of marriage.

8. What are the prohibited degrees of marriage?
Prohibited to you for marriage are – Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father’s sisters, mother’s sisters, brother’s daughters, sister’s daughters, foster-mothers, foster-sisters, your wives’ mothers, your step-daughters, wives of your sons proceeding from your loins, and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time; Mushrik men and women until they believe.

9. Seeing the woman to whom one proposes marriage is permissible in Islam. Explain.
In order to avoid future regrets, a Muslim boy is allowed to see the girl to whom one proposes marriage. Here seeing also means knowing about her religious nature. The same is true for a Muslim girl.

10. What are the benefits of marriage? What part may a religious faith play in building a happy marriage?

Some of the benefits of marriage are:
A morally clean society
Prevention and elimination of illicit sex
Peace, love and harmony between the couples,
Adding strength to one’s religion and community.
Continuation of human race.

Religious faith and righteousness keeps the family well knitted with peace and harmony prevailing at home.

11. In Muslim family, what are the rights and the responsibilities of
(a) the husband and (b) the wife?
The Wife’s Rights: The Husband’s Responsibilities:
1. To treat his wife with honesty, kindness, honour, and patience; and not to cause her any harm or grief.
2. Have full responsibility for providing food, shelter, clothing, general care and wellbeing.
The Husband’s Rights: The wife’s Responsibilities:
1. The wife must be faithful, trustworthy, and honest.
2. To take care of his possessions and children
3. Not to do anything against the wishes of her husband.

THE EXPENDITURE OF ZAKAH

1. What is the importance of Zakah in Islam? 
Zakah, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a compulsory act of worship and one of the basic principles of Islamic Economy. Mere verbal belief in Islam has little weight unless accompanied by Zakah in practice. Not giving Zakah amounts to kufr (disbelief).


2. What is the primary objective of Zakah? 
The primary objective of Zakah is religious and spiritual in that it removes man’s greed for wealth and makes him come closer to Allah. It provides social security and helps bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.


3. What did Abu Bakr as-Siddiq do when some tribes refused to pay Zakah? 
He waged war against them until they agreed to give Zakah.


4. Zakah is a form of social security. Discuss. 
Zakah is an important means of providing social security. Islam refuses to allow individual members of society to be denied the basic needs of life, like food, clothing, and shelter. It is necessary that these things are available to all members of society. It is made available through the institution of Zakah. The poor, unfortunate and helpless Muslims have a right in the wealth of the rich.


5. Write a short note on each of the following: 
    1. People who are entitled to receive Zakah: 
Eight categories of Muslim people are entitled to receive Zakah:
1. The poor – The ones who cannot pay for their barest essentials.
2. The needy -The ones who live under great hardships and difficulties but do not beg from anybody.
3. Those appointed by an Islamic state to collect and distribute Zakah.
4. These are those people who might enter or who have already entered Islam.
5. For freeing people from slavery and bondage.
6. Those who are in debt. Not to be given to those living in luxury but to those living a normal life. For eg. Someone who has gone bankrupt because of job loss and is overburdened with debt.
7. Fi Sabeelillah – In the way of Allah. This can be for any good cause. For eg. Building Muslim clinics and hospitals, to pay for the studies of the poor Muslim students.
8. Traveller. This refers to a traveller, for instance who has lost his wallet and has to get back to his home.

  2. Tips on Spending in the way of Allah: 
1. Give only to please Allah.
2. Give only good things.
3. Don’t injure the feelings of the poor and needy by stressing your generosity.
4. Give to the deserving.
5. Guard against misuse. Do not give for evil purposes.
6. Do not delay the payment. Give in time.


6. How does Zakah differ from Sadaqah? 
Zakah is obligatory while Sadaqah is optional. Zakah must be given once in a year. Sadaqah can be given as many times. Zakah is due on rich Muslims. Any Muslim can give Sadaqah. Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam while Sadaqah is not a pillar of Islam.