GENEROSITY


1. What criterion does the Qur’an set in regard to spending in the way of Allah?
Islam encourages generosity and discourages miserliness. One needs to strike a balance in spending. Neither become too generous to the extent of becoming a destitute nor be miserly!
2. What is the counsel of the Prophet concerning ‘sadaqah’?
The Prophet urged Muslims to adopt moderation in spending money in meeting one’s own needs, and those of one’s dependants. Muslims are enjoined to spend from ‘whatever one can spare’.
3. What is the best Sadaqah according to a Hadith?
“The best Sadaqah is what comes out of sufficient resources and, in making it, you begin with your dependants”. The best sadaqah, therefore, is that which starts from one’s own home.
4. The hand of Allah is full. Comment.
Allah gives abundantly to those who spend in His Cause. There is no limit in Allah bestowing His Blessings upon His servants.
5. What evils come out of miserliness?
* Murder
* Greed and jealousy
* Treating unlawful as lawful
6. A Hadith mentions the story of the owner of an orchard. What economic policy had he adopted? What was its reward? What lesson should we learn from it?
* Assessing the profit from the harvest
* Giving away one-third of the harvest as charity
* Keeping one-third of the harvest for personal and family use
* Reinvest the remaining one-third
The reward was that he got exclusive heavenly blessings in the form of water which is a vital resource for irrigation.
The moral of the story: ‘enjoy the fruits of the hard work and also don’t deprive the poor of their share. Use resources wisely and keep the future in focus.’
7. What parable does the Qur’an use to illustrate the reward of those who spend in the way of Allah?
The parable of those who spend in the way of Allah is that of a grain out which grow seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains.
8. Write a short note on the Prophet’s generosity.
Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the most generous of all. He never denied anyone anything. 
Once he said, “If Mount of Uhud be changed for me into gold, I would never have it that three days should pass and the money still be lying with me.”
At the beginning of his illness, before his death, the Prophet had in his house seven dinars; he ordered his relatives to give away even that money to the poor. 

THE RIGHTEOUS WIFE

1. Describe the role of marriage as the basis of Islamic society.
The institution of marriage plays an important role in Muslim society. Allah has caused love and mercy to flow from it in order to establish in the home an atmosphere of tenderness and affection. Marriage is the basis to remain within the limits set forth by Allah. It establishes a moral society devoid of illicit relationships. One of the main objectives of marriage is to found a family which will contribute to the strength of Islam and community.

2. What is the responsibility of believing parents towards their children?
* To raise children according to the Islamic principles and beliefs.
* To provide them best education and moral training.

3. How should children be brought up and trained in a Muslim family?
Children are a trust from Allah. Parents must instil love of religion and fear of Allah in the minds and hearts of their children. There are various ways how a Muslim parent can bring up and train children, some of which are as follows:
1- Showing the values of good deeds and their effects on the individuals and society; also showing the effects of bad deeds, all within the child’s capability of understanding.
2- Parents should be a good example in their behavior because children like to imitate their parents in their sayings and their deeds.
3- Teaching the child the religious principles and tutoring him in worship, taking into account the child’s capability of understanding. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) is reported to have said: “Order your children to pray at the age of seven.”
4- Treating children nicely and kindly.
5- One of the important things that parents must teach their children is to choose the good company and to the avoid the bad ones, because children are always influenced by the company they keep. The bad behavior can be easily transmitted through bad company.
6- Encouraging the child’s sense of belonging to the Muslim Ummah, by teaching him of the brotherhood between Muslims, teaching him to care for Muslims in any land, and that he is part of the Muslim body, to feel joy when Muslims are joyous, to feel sad for Muslims’ sadness.
7. Taking children to the masjid.
8. Teaching them the history of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and his companions and the history of Islam, bearing in mind the child’s capability of understanding.

4. What is the Qur’anic guiding principle in matter of marriage?
* ‘Corrupt women for corrupt men and corrupt men for corrupt women;
good women for good men and good men for good women’.
* ‘the fornicator shall marry none but a woman who fornicates’.

5. What criterion does the Hadith, mentioned in this lesson, set for a believer in the choice of spouse? What is the wisdom in it?
Religion and piety must be the criterion while choosing one’s life partner. Piety will lead the couple to obey the commands of Allah and fulfil their rights and obligations. Consequently peace and security will prevail in the family.

6. What does the expression ‘may your hand be smeared with dust’ mean?
The Arabs use this expression to encourage someone to do the desired action.

7. Marriage to an idolater or an idolatress is forbidden in Islam. Explain.
Marriage means living under one roof in harmony, love and peace. This will happen only when one’s spouse is of one’s belief system. Marrying someone with conflicting beliefs not only brings about disaster in the family but also defeats the very purpose of marriage.

8. What are the prohibited degrees of marriage?
Prohibited to you for marriage are – Your mothers, daughters, sisters, father’s sisters, mother’s sisters, brother’s daughters, sister’s daughters, foster-mothers, foster-sisters, your wives’ mothers, your step-daughters, wives of your sons proceeding from your loins, and two sisters in wedlock at one and the same time; Mushrik men and women until they believe.

9. Seeing the woman to whom one proposes marriage is permissible in Islam. Explain.
In order to avoid future regrets, a Muslim boy is allowed to see the girl to whom one proposes marriage. Here seeing also means knowing about her religious nature. The same is true for a Muslim girl.

10. What are the benefits of marriage? What part may a religious faith play in building a happy marriage?

Some of the benefits of marriage are:
A morally clean society
Prevention and elimination of illicit sex
Peace, love and harmony between the couples,
Adding strength to one’s religion and community.
Continuation of human race.

Religious faith and righteousness keeps the family well knitted with peace and harmony prevailing at home.

11. In Muslim family, what are the rights and the responsibilities of
(a) the husband and (b) the wife?
The Wife’s Rights: The Husband’s Responsibilities:
1. To treat his wife with honesty, kindness, honour, and patience; and not to cause her any harm or grief.
2. Have full responsibility for providing food, shelter, clothing, general care and wellbeing.
The Husband’s Rights: The wife’s Responsibilities:
1. The wife must be faithful, trustworthy, and honest.
2. To take care of his possessions and children
3. Not to do anything against the wishes of her husband.

THE EXPENDITURE OF ZAKAH

1. What is the importance of Zakah in Islam? 
Zakah, one of the five pillars of Islam, is a compulsory act of worship and one of the basic principles of Islamic Economy. Mere verbal belief in Islam has little weight unless accompanied by Zakah in practice. Not giving Zakah amounts to kufr (disbelief).


2. What is the primary objective of Zakah? 
The primary objective of Zakah is religious and spiritual in that it removes man’s greed for wealth and makes him come closer to Allah. It provides social security and helps bridge the gap between the rich and the poor.


3. What did Abu Bakr as-Siddiq do when some tribes refused to pay Zakah? 
He waged war against them until they agreed to give Zakah.


4. Zakah is a form of social security. Discuss. 
Zakah is an important means of providing social security. Islam refuses to allow individual members of society to be denied the basic needs of life, like food, clothing, and shelter. It is necessary that these things are available to all members of society. It is made available through the institution of Zakah. The poor, unfortunate and helpless Muslims have a right in the wealth of the rich.


5. Write a short note on each of the following: 
    1. People who are entitled to receive Zakah: 
Eight categories of Muslim people are entitled to receive Zakah:
1. The poor – The ones who cannot pay for their barest essentials.
2. The needy -The ones who live under great hardships and difficulties but do not beg from anybody.
3. Those appointed by an Islamic state to collect and distribute Zakah.
4. These are those people who might enter or who have already entered Islam.
5. For freeing people from slavery and bondage.
6. Those who are in debt. Not to be given to those living in luxury but to those living a normal life. For eg. Someone who has gone bankrupt because of job loss and is overburdened with debt.
7. Fi Sabeelillah – In the way of Allah. This can be for any good cause. For eg. Building Muslim clinics and hospitals, to pay for the studies of the poor Muslim students.
8. Traveller. This refers to a traveller, for instance who has lost his wallet and has to get back to his home.

  2. Tips on Spending in the way of Allah: 
1. Give only to please Allah.
2. Give only good things.
3. Don’t injure the feelings of the poor and needy by stressing your generosity.
4. Give to the deserving.
5. Guard against misuse. Do not give for evil purposes.
6. Do not delay the payment. Give in time.


6. How does Zakah differ from Sadaqah? 
Zakah is obligatory while Sadaqah is optional. Zakah must be given once in a year. Sadaqah can be given as many times. Zakah is due on rich Muslims. Any Muslim can give Sadaqah. Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam while Sadaqah is not a pillar of Islam.

SO TAUGHT OUR PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلم

(REFER TO AHADITH 7 to 12 IN THE TEXT BOOK)


Read the following Ahadith and answer the questions that follow: 


1. No sin is more swiftly punished than oppression and the breaking of family ties
a. What is a sin? Sin is a deed the doing of which pricks one’s heart, and one doesn’t want others to know about it.


b. What do you mean by ‘no sin is more swiftly punished than oppression and the breaking of family ties’? 
It means Allah is quicker to punish those sinners who commit oppression, and indulge in breaking the family ties.


c. What is oppression? Oppression is tyranny. It is to treat people with harshness and cruelty. It is also to deny and violate the rights of others.


d. What is meant by breaking of family ties? 
It is the severing of family relationships.


e. The person who breaks the family ties, will he go to Paradise? Why? 
No, he won’t because the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم once said, “the one who severs family relationships will not enter Paradise”.


2. “There are three things which save and three things which destroy: Those which save are: Fear of Allah in secret and in public, moderation in poverty and in wealth, and speaking the truth whether angry or calm. Those which destroy are: passion which is pursued, avarice and self-admiration”. 


a. What do you mean by ‘moderation in poverty and in wealth’? It means adopting and maintaining balance & moderation in spending one’s money, be it in poverty or in plenty.


b. What is avarice? 
Avarice is to have an extreme desire for riches and to be greedy of wealth.


c. What is meant by ‘passion, which is pursued’?
It is a continuous involvement and showing of interest in the feelings of love, hate or anger. For example, a person who has great enthusiasm in pursuing a path of lust or sex is said to have a passion for sex.


d. What is self-admiration and why is it a cause of one’s destruction?
Self-admiration is to take pleasure in talking about oneself or boasting about one’s personality, achievement or abilities. It is to have pride and satisfaction in oneself. The self-admirer thinks that he exists on his own and that he can do without the help of Allah. This ungratefulness nature will lead him to destruction.


3. “On the Day of Judgement no step of a servant of Allah shall slip until he has answered concerning four things: 1. His body and how he used it 2. His life and how he spent it 3. His wealth and how he earned it, and 4. His knowledge and what he did with it.”


a. Mention the four things about which every person will have to give account of on the Day of Judgement? 
The four things are: 1. His body and how he used it 2. His life and how he spent it 3. His wealth and how he earned it, and 4. His knowledge and what he did with it.


4. “When a person dies, his deed come to an end except in respect of three matters which he leaves behind: A continuing charity, knowledge from which benefit could be derived and righteous children who pray for him”. 


a. Explain the above-mentioned hadith. 
This hadith tells us in clear terms that after a person’s death, his Book of Deeds is closed but for three things which he leaves behind him in this world. That is, the rewards of these three things will be credited in one’s Book of Deeds even after one’s death. The three things are i) A continuing charity ii) beneficial knowledge and iii) righteous children’s supplication for their deceased father or mother.


b. What is meant by ‘a continuing charity’?
It is called ‘sadaqah jaariyah’, that is a charity whose benefits people continue to reap even after one’s death. For example: A Muslim built a mosque or planted a tree. After building the mosque or planting a tree he dies. The mosque or the tree is of use and benefit to others. The rewards of people praying in the mosque or drawing benefit out of the tree will go to that Muslim.


5. “The generous person is near to Allah, near to men, near to Heaven, far from Hell-fire. The miser is far from Allah, far from men, far from Heaven, near to Hell-fire. And ignorant person who is generous is better in the sight of Allah than the worshipper who is miser”. 


a. What is the Prophet trying to emphasize in this hadith? 
In this hadith, the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم is motivating Muslims to adopt generous attitude in them and to shun miserliness. He is emphasizing that generosity and kind-heartedness will lead a person to Paradise and miserliness could take him to Hell-fire.


6. “Whoever desires to become the strongest of men, let him put his trust in Allah”. 
a. How can a Muslim who puts his trust in Allah become strongest of men? 
A Muslim who puts his trust in Allah is relieved of worries, anxiety and pessimism. He is free from hopelessness. He feels satisfied in what he does because he is confident that his Almighty Lord will help him in his endeavors. Trust in Allah makes one physically, mentally and emotionally stronger.

AL JIHAD IN ISLAM

Q1) What is the meaning of the word al-Jihad? 
The word Jihad is derived from Jahada, which means striving or exerting oneself against any evil.


Q2) What is Jihad an-Nafs? 
It means man’s struggle against his own passions and weaknesses. The Prophet Muhammad described Jihad an-Nafs as the ‘greatest Jihad.’


Q3) What does al-Jihad signify in Shariah? 
In Shariah, it signifies the exertion of one’s power and ability to the utmost of one’s capacity in the way of Allah. It is Fard Kifayah (an obligation that must be discharged by the Muslim community as a whole) and Fard Ain (obligation that must be performed by each individual Muslim) as well.


Q4) In Hadith the word Jihad is not exclusively used for fighting. Explain. 
Jihad is a comprehensive word. It does not only include fighting. Prophet Muhammad said, “The hajj is the most excellent form of Jihad.” He also said, “The highest kind of Jihad is to say the truth before an oppressive ruler.” These Ahadith are evidence to show that Jihad is not exclusively war or fighting.


Q5) What is the viewpoint of Shariah regarding war? 
Islam makes war permissible for Muslims only in self-defence. It does not permit us to start a war of aggression. When the freedom of a Muslim’s Faith is at risk, he is bound to take up arms in Jihad. Further, a believer can not afford to leave his fellow-believers defenceless. However, Jihad is not an offensive means to spread Islam.


Q6) What makes Jihad a sacred pursuit like Prayer and devotion? 
It is a sacred pursuit because it has been commanded by Allah in the Qur’an. As Salah and Ibadah brings us to closer to Allah, striving in His cause also brings us closer to Him. We have been commanded by Allah to do Jihad with our utmost ability.


Q7) On whom is Jihad obligatory? 
Jihad, striving against evil, is obligatory on every sane, adult male and female Muslim. But fighting in the war is obligatory on every sane, adult male Muslims only.


Q8) In what conditions is Jihad considered to be Fard Kifayah? 
As long a group of Muslims keeping performing the Jihad against evil, for example, it would be considered to be Fard Kifayah but when a certain evil is posing a threat to the existence of Muslims, then Jihad would cease to be Fard Kifayah and it would become Fard Ain.


Q9) What does the expression Fard Kifayah mean? 
It signifies a collective duty of the Muslim community so that if some people carry it out no Muslim is considered blameworthy; but if no one carries it out all incur a collective guilt.


Q10) When does the Jihad become Fard Ain? When does Islam permit war?
1) If the disbelievers enter or invade a land of the Muslims 2) If the rows meet in battle and they begin to approach each other. 3) If the Imam calls a person or a people to march forward in Jihad. 4) If the disbelievers capture and imprison a group of Muslims.
Islam does not allow killing of a human being merely because he or she does not believe in Islam. It permits war only in self-defence, that is when non-Muslims oppress Muslims, or interfere with the spread of message to mankind.


Q11) What role may Muslim women play in the time of war?
In the time of war, Muslim women can give water to the soldiers and can nurse the wounded.