ISLAM AND THE WORLD

1. How did the Hadith of Allah’s Messenger encourage learning? 
The Hadith that ‘there is no disease for which Allah has not sent a cure’ gave Muslims an interest in the study of medical sciences. It motivated them to ponder over the teachings of Qur’an and come up with new discoveries in different branches of science.


2. In what fields of science were the Muslims particularly advanced?
The Muslims were particularly advanced in the field of mathematics and medical science.

3. Give a brief account of the hospitals in some of the old Muslim cities.
There were efficient hospitals in each Muslim city. The best hospitals had separate wards for fevers, surgical cases, and eye diseases. The most notable hospital was the Mansuri Hospital in Egypt, built in 1282 A.D. It had beds for several thousand people. It had separate sections for male and female patients.


4. What contribution did the Muslims make to medical science? 
Muslims preserved the old scientific works and added their own special knowledge. They performed surgery and did amputations when necessary. They removed cancerous tissues. They created anesthetics that were used in surgical operations. They wrote hundreds of valuable medical books thus contributing towards the advancement of medical sciences.


5. How did each of the following contribute to medicine and learning:


a. Ar-Razi: 
Ar-Razi, a great Muslim physician, wrote a medical encyclopedia in which he discussed measles, smallpox, kidney stones, skin diseases, and ways to maintain one’s health. He was the first scientist to differentiate between measles and small-pox. Ar-Razi wrote 200 medical books, which were translated into Latin and were widely consulted in medieval Europe.


b. Ibn Sina:
Ibn Sina explained to the world the human digestive system. He excelled in bacteriology, the basis of modern medical science. He proved that bacteria causes several diseases. He was an expert in anatomy and pharmaceutical sciences. His works were translated into Latin and Greek. His greatest contribution was the magnum opus, the Canonical Law of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia of immense interest.


c. Ibn Abi Hazm:
Ibn Abi Hazm was the first scientist to explain the theory of the circulation of blood in detail. He proved that food is fuel to maintain the heat of the body. He was a physician and a surgeon as well.


6. What Muslim achievements were passed on to the Western civilization? 
Muslims in Turkey treated smallpox through vaccination in 1679. The system reached Europe in the 18th century through lady Montague, wife of the British ambassador in Turkey. Sir William Harvey was greatly benefited from the work of a Muslim scientist, Ibn Abi Hazm of Damascus, in propagating the theory of the circulation of blood. The Western civilization was greatly benefited from the encyclopedic works of Ar-Razi and Ibn Sina.

A’ISHAH SIDDIQA رضي الله عنها – MOTHER OF THE BELIEVERS

1. Who was A’ishah Siddiqa? Who was her father? What was her mother’s name?
A’ishah Siddiqa was a wife of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). Her father was Abu Bakr Siddique. Her mother was Umm Ru’man.

2. A’ishah Siddiqa is considered to be one of the most reliable sources of Hadith. Discuss.
A’ishah Siddiqa was very brilliant and of sharp intellect. She had learnt by heart thousands of Hadith. She has reported 2210 Ahadith, and being a wife of the Prophet, she is considered among the scholars as one of the most reliable sources of Hadith.

3. Who was Khadijatul Kubra? When did she die?
Khadijatul Kubra was the Prophet’s first wife. She died in the year 619 A.D.

4. What was the effect of her death on Allah’s Messenger?
He felt a deep loss on her death.

5. Who suggested that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should marry A’ishah?
Khawla, wife of Uthman bin Maz’un, suggested that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should marry A’ishah.

6. How long did A’ishah stay in her father’s house after the marriage ceremony?
A’ishah stayed in her father’s house after the marriage ceremony for three years.

7. When did the bride depart from her father’s house in Madinah?
The bride departed from her father’s house in Madinah in Safar 1 H, 623 A.D.

8. The marriage of A’ishah with the Prophet put an end to a number of indecent practices. Explain how?
The departure of the bride in the month of Safar was considered to be an omen of bad luck in those; but both the Nikah and departure ceremony of A’ishah took place in this month. It was an Arab custom to carry flaming torches before the bridal party. The husband used to first meet his bride in a palanquin. A’ishah’s marriage rooted out all such practices.

9. What kind of household tasks did A’ishah do?
She would grind corn into flour, knead the dough and cook food. She would make the beds, put up water for the Prophet to perform the wudhu, and wash clothes.

10. Describe the inside of A’ishah’s apartment. What were her personal effects?
Her room measured hardly ten feet across. Its walls were made of mud. It had a roof of palm fronds, held by tree trunks. The roof was so low that one could easily touch it. Her personal effects were a bed, a pillow stuffed with palm-fibers, a mat, two earthen jars for keeping flour and dates, a pitcher for water and a drinking bowl.

11. Write a character sketch of A’ishah.
A’ishah was a brilliant lady. She possessed a sharp intellect. She lived a simple life. She organized classes for women and used to explain the teachings of Islam. She used to do all household works by herself. She never spoke ill of anyone. Her most outstanding quality was her generosity. She would even borrow money to help the needy.

Write Short Notes on the following:

1. A’ishah’s spirit of inquiry:
The Prophet used to give religious talks, next to Aishah’s apartment. She would listen to them intently. When she would not understand something, she would ask the Prophet about it. Every week ladies assembled in her apartment. She instructed them in religion. Her spirit of inquiry did great service to Islam.

2. The greatness of A’ishah (Radhi Allahu Anha)
She never spoke ill of anyone. Her most outstanding quality was her generosity. She would even borrow money to help the needy. If A’ishah had even a date, she would not hesitate to give it away saying that on the Day of Judgement, ‘He who shall have done an atom’s weight of good, shall see it’. She was the most learned. She has reported 2210 hadith of the Prophet. She was very pious. She freed 67 slaves.

3. The affair of the lie (Ifk)
This relates to an incident, which occurred on the Prophet’s return from the campaign against the tribe of Mustaliq in the year 6 H. A’ishah accompanied the Prophet on this expedition. At the last halt, before they arrived back in Madinah, she moved away out of sight for a while to ease herself. A necklace dropped in the sand and it kept her longer than she had intended. By the time she was back, the caravan had left. After having spent several hours alone, she was found out by one of the Prophet’s companions. He then brought her back on his camel. The enemies of Islam raised a malicious scandal. The ringleader was Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a hypocrite.