ISLAM AND THE WORLD

1. How did the Hadith of Allah’s Messenger encourage learning? 
The Hadith that ‘there is no disease for which Allah has not sent a cure’ gave Muslims an interest in the study of medical sciences. It motivated them to ponder over the teachings of Qur’an and come up with new discoveries in different branches of science.


2. In what fields of science were the Muslims particularly advanced?
The Muslims were particularly advanced in the field of mathematics and medical science.

3. Give a brief account of the hospitals in some of the old Muslim cities.
There were efficient hospitals in each Muslim city. The best hospitals had separate wards for fevers, surgical cases, and eye diseases. The most notable hospital was the Mansuri Hospital in Egypt, built in 1282 A.D. It had beds for several thousand people. It had separate sections for male and female patients.


4. What contribution did the Muslims make to medical science? 
Muslims preserved the old scientific works and added their own special knowledge. They performed surgery and did amputations when necessary. They removed cancerous tissues. They created anesthetics that were used in surgical operations. They wrote hundreds of valuable medical books thus contributing towards the advancement of medical sciences.


5. How did each of the following contribute to medicine and learning:


a. Ar-Razi: 
Ar-Razi, a great Muslim physician, wrote a medical encyclopedia in which he discussed measles, smallpox, kidney stones, skin diseases, and ways to maintain one’s health. He was the first scientist to differentiate between measles and small-pox. Ar-Razi wrote 200 medical books, which were translated into Latin and were widely consulted in medieval Europe.


b. Ibn Sina:
Ibn Sina explained to the world the human digestive system. He excelled in bacteriology, the basis of modern medical science. He proved that bacteria causes several diseases. He was an expert in anatomy and pharmaceutical sciences. His works were translated into Latin and Greek. His greatest contribution was the magnum opus, the Canonical Law of Medicine, a medical encyclopedia of immense interest.


c. Ibn Abi Hazm:
Ibn Abi Hazm was the first scientist to explain the theory of the circulation of blood in detail. He proved that food is fuel to maintain the heat of the body. He was a physician and a surgeon as well.


6. What Muslim achievements were passed on to the Western civilization? 
Muslims in Turkey treated smallpox through vaccination in 1679. The system reached Europe in the 18th century through lady Montague, wife of the British ambassador in Turkey. Sir William Harvey was greatly benefited from the work of a Muslim scientist, Ibn Abi Hazm of Damascus, in propagating the theory of the circulation of blood. The Western civilization was greatly benefited from the encyclopedic works of Ar-Razi and Ibn Sina.

A’ISHAH SIDDIQA رضي الله عنها – MOTHER OF THE BELIEVERS

1. Who was A’ishah Siddiqa? Who was her father? What was her mother’s name?
A’ishah Siddiqa was a wife of the Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). Her father was Abu Bakr Siddique. Her mother was Umm Ru’man.

2. A’ishah Siddiqa is considered to be one of the most reliable sources of Hadith. Discuss.
A’ishah Siddiqa was very brilliant and of sharp intellect. She had learnt by heart thousands of Hadith. She has reported 2210 Ahadith, and being a wife of the Prophet, she is considered among the scholars as one of the most reliable sources of Hadith.

3. Who was Khadijatul Kubra? When did she die?
Khadijatul Kubra was the Prophet’s first wife. She died in the year 619 A.D.

4. What was the effect of her death on Allah’s Messenger?
He felt a deep loss on her death.

5. Who suggested that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should marry A’ishah?
Khawla, wife of Uthman bin Maz’un, suggested that the Prophet (peace be upon him) should marry A’ishah.

6. How long did A’ishah stay in her father’s house after the marriage ceremony?
A’ishah stayed in her father’s house after the marriage ceremony for three years.

7. When did the bride depart from her father’s house in Madinah?
The bride departed from her father’s house in Madinah in Safar 1 H, 623 A.D.

8. The marriage of A’ishah with the Prophet put an end to a number of indecent practices. Explain how?
The departure of the bride in the month of Safar was considered to be an omen of bad luck in those; but both the Nikah and departure ceremony of A’ishah took place in this month. It was an Arab custom to carry flaming torches before the bridal party. The husband used to first meet his bride in a palanquin. A’ishah’s marriage rooted out all such practices.

9. What kind of household tasks did A’ishah do?
She would grind corn into flour, knead the dough and cook food. She would make the beds, put up water for the Prophet to perform the wudhu, and wash clothes.

10. Describe the inside of A’ishah’s apartment. What were her personal effects?
Her room measured hardly ten feet across. Its walls were made of mud. It had a roof of palm fronds, held by tree trunks. The roof was so low that one could easily touch it. Her personal effects were a bed, a pillow stuffed with palm-fibers, a mat, two earthen jars for keeping flour and dates, a pitcher for water and a drinking bowl.

11. Write a character sketch of A’ishah.
A’ishah was a brilliant lady. She possessed a sharp intellect. She lived a simple life. She organized classes for women and used to explain the teachings of Islam. She used to do all household works by herself. She never spoke ill of anyone. Her most outstanding quality was her generosity. She would even borrow money to help the needy.

Write Short Notes on the following:

1. A’ishah’s spirit of inquiry:
The Prophet used to give religious talks, next to Aishah’s apartment. She would listen to them intently. When she would not understand something, she would ask the Prophet about it. Every week ladies assembled in her apartment. She instructed them in religion. Her spirit of inquiry did great service to Islam.

2. The greatness of A’ishah (Radhi Allahu Anha)
She never spoke ill of anyone. Her most outstanding quality was her generosity. She would even borrow money to help the needy. If A’ishah had even a date, she would not hesitate to give it away saying that on the Day of Judgement, ‘He who shall have done an atom’s weight of good, shall see it’. She was the most learned. She has reported 2210 hadith of the Prophet. She was very pious. She freed 67 slaves.

3. The affair of the lie (Ifk)
This relates to an incident, which occurred on the Prophet’s return from the campaign against the tribe of Mustaliq in the year 6 H. A’ishah accompanied the Prophet on this expedition. At the last halt, before they arrived back in Madinah, she moved away out of sight for a while to ease herself. A necklace dropped in the sand and it kept her longer than she had intended. By the time she was back, the caravan had left. After having spent several hours alone, she was found out by one of the Prophet’s companions. He then brought her back on his camel. The enemies of Islam raised a malicious scandal. The ringleader was Abdullah ibn Ubayy, a hypocrite.

THE PROPHET ISA عليه السلام

1. Who was Isa?
Prophet Isa was the last prominent Prophet sent to Bani Isra’il.


2. What was the most extra-ordinary thing about Isa? 
The most extra-ordinary thing about Isa was that he was born without a father.


3. Mention some of the virtues of Maryam, the Mother of Isa. 
Maryam descended from the family of Harun, the brother of Prophet Musa. There is a chapter entitled Maryam, in the Qur’an. She was a virtuous woman who gave birth to a son, Prophet Isa, by a special miracle from Allah. According to one hadith, Maryam is one among the four great women of the world.


4. What was the mission of Isa? 
The mission of Isa is mentioned in the Qur’an in two ways:
1. He was a sign to men; his wonderful birth and wonderful life were to turn a sinful world back to Allah
2. His mission was to give comfort and solace to the repentant.


5. What book was revealed to Isa? 
Injeel was the book that was revealed to Prophet Isa.


6. What miracles were given to Isa? 
a. He could make birds out of clay, could breathe life into them by Allah’s leave
b. He could heal leprosy
c. He could restore eyesight to the blind.
d. He could make the dead alive.
e. He could declare what the people had eaten and what they had stored in their houses.


7. Was Prophet Isa crucified to death? What does the Qur’an say about it? 
No, the Prophet Isa was not crucified to death. The Qur’an says that ‘he was raised up to heaven’.


8. What was the teaching of Isa? Did he ask his followers to worship him? 
Like other Prophets of Allah, Isa called people to the worship of the One True God. He enjoined upon the people to offer prayers and pay the Zakah. He never told his followers to worship him.


9. What does Islam say about incarnation? 
Incarnation means coming of God on earth in human form. Islam rejects this Christian doctrine. Islam says that Isa was merely a created being like all other creatures. He was a Prophet of Allah, and not a son of God! His birth was a sign of the power of Allah.

FROM SURAH ABASA (Verses 1 – 16)

NOTE: You must learn the verses 1 to 16 by heart and know its meaning thoroughly


Write the meaning of the following words: 


1. عَبَسَ – He frowned 
2. الأعْمَى – the blind 
3. يَزَّكَّى – purity 
4. الذِّكْرَى – the reminder 
5. اسْتَغْنَى – self-sufficient 
6. تَصَدَّى – to give attention 
7. يَسْعَى – comes running, eagerly 
8. يَخْشَى – fears 
9. عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى – far from being attentive 
10. ذَكَرَهُ – remember it, remember the Qur’an 
11. مُكَرَّمَةٍ – honoured 
12. مَرْفُوعَةٍ – kept high 
13. مُطَهَّرَةٍ – pure 
14. سَفَرَةٍ – scribes 
15. كِرَامٍ بَرَرَةٍ- noble and pious, honoured and holy 


Answer the following questions:

1. Why did the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) ‘frowned and turned away’? 
The Prophet ‘frowned and turned away’ because the blind came to him interrupting the conversation which he was having with some of the influential men of Makkah. 


2. Who was the blind man who came to the Prophet (Peace be upon him)? 
The blind man who came to the Prophet was Abdullah ibn Umm Maktoum (Radhi-Allahu-Anhu) 


3. Who were the people about whom Allah tells the Prophet that they ‘are not in want of anything’? They were among the leaders of Quraysh, a famous tribe of Makkah. 


4. What do you mean by ‘although you will not be blamed if he does not purify himself’? 
It means that the Prophet (peace be upon him) will not be taken to task if the people do not heed to the call of Islam. 


5. ‘The Qur’an is a Reminder’. Explain briefly. 
It means that the purpose of Qur’an is to remind people of the duty towards their Creator and Cherisher, and towards the fellow human beings. 


6. ‘So let him who wants to remember it (do so)’. Explain. 
This verse gives man the freedom to believe in Allah and be conscious of Him, or to deny Allah and live a life of rebellion. Since one can make or mar one’s own destiny, one should be prepared to face the consequences of one’s own choice. 


7. What is the meaning of ‘it is on honoured pages, kept high and pure’? 
The Qur’an is a Word of Allah. It is noble, sacred and glorious. It is holy, free from all corruption and impurities. Its teachings are of a very high standard. 


8. Who are those ‘who are noble and pious’? 
They are the noble and respected Angels of Allah.

SO TAUGHT OUR PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلم

Read the following ahadith and answer the questions given below: 


1. “None of you has faith unless I am dearer to him than his father, and his son and all mankind”. What is the meaning of this Hadith?
It means that if one wants to be a true Muslim, the teachings of the Prophet Muhammad should become one’s priority and it should be above all other human considerations. For example, if one’s father tells to do something, which the Prophet has prohibited, then the Prophet’s teaching must be preferred and followed and not what one’s father tells.


2. “Perform part of your prayers at home, so that your houses do not become like graves”. 
a. Which part of one’s prayers can be performed at home?
One can perform the Sunnah and Nafil prayers at home instead of offering them in the mosque.


b. What is compared to the home where prayers are not performed? And Why? 
The Prophet compared the home where prayers are not performed with that of a grave. It is because prayers are not performed in the graves.


3. “There are two blessings which most people misuse: health and leisure”. 
a. What are the two blessings, which most people misuse? 
The two blessings, which most people misuse, are health and leisure.

b. In what way health and leisure are blessings. 
Health and leisure are deadly combinations for the wise and active people to do good, beneficial deeds by utilising time in a useful way. If a person falls sick or is afflicted with some disease and is bed ridden, he would be unable to carry out his work. Similarly, a busy person without leisure would not be able to fulfil many obligations, for example: spending time with one’s family. Health and leisure, therefore, are blessings.


c. Explain how people misuse health and leisure? 
A healthy man who has time at his disposal can do many constructive things and be a source of help to others. However, if he is using these two blessings to carry out activities that are harmful to the society, then definitely he is misusing them.


4. “No one eats better food than the one who earns from the work of his own hands”. 
a. Explain the above-quoted hadith? 
Earning a livelihood through one’s own hard work is the better way – the dignified way – to live in this world. Those who live on other’s earnings are indeed parasites that have no self-respect!


b. Why did the Prophet say, “No one eats better food than the one who earns from the work of his own hands”? 
Islam condemns lethargy and beggary. It wants Muslims to stand on their own legs. It wants Muslims to lead a dignified life. That is why the Prophet said this.


5. “There is no disease for which Allah has not sent a cure”. 
a. What is the meaning of ‘There is no disease for which Allah has not sent a cure”? 
It means: if there is a disease, there is a cure.

b. If that is true, why, then, there is no cure for cancer? 
The Prophet cannot be wrong. There is a cure even for cancer. The problem lies in striving to find a cure. If doctors and medical scientists explore the avenues, they will definitely find a cure for cancer.


6. “Paradise lies at the feet of the mothers”.
What is meant by ‘Paradise lying at the feet of the mothers’? 
It means, when you are good to your parents, obeying, respecting and being kind to them, Paradise, then, is yours!


7. “It is charity for any Muslim who plants a tree or cultivates land which provides food for a bird, animal or man”. 
a. Explain the above quoted Hadith. 
Being a source of benefit to others is a form of charity. A Muslim who plants a tree is doing a great service to the society. The tree provides fruits and flowers, which are used by people. Even if a tree gives neither fruit nor flower, it at least, provides shelter to the people. It gives out oxygen, the source of human survival. Similarly, cultivating a land that provides food for birds, animals and human beings is charity. As long as people, even birds and animals, eat the produce of one’s cultivation, it would be credited as charity in one’s account.

b. Islam is environment-friendly. Justify in the light of the above quoted Hadith. 
By calling the act of planting a tree or cultivating a land an act of charity, the Prophet Muhammad (sal-lal-lahu-alahi-wa-sallam) has in fact motivated the Muslims to participate in the conversation of the environment. He has encouraged his followers to adopt environment-friendly attitude in their life. A Muslim, therefore, cannot indulge in deforestation. He/She cannot participate in any act that causes global warming. He/She cannot be a party to death and destruction of birds, animals and human beings. All these teachings are pointers to the fact that Islam is an environment-friendly religion.


8. “Help your brother, be he a wrong-doer or wronged”. Thereupon a man exclaimed, “O Messenger of Allah! I may help if he is wronged, but how could I help a wrongdoer?” The Prophet answered, “You must prevent him from doing wrong: that will be your help to him”.
a. In this hadith, who is being referred to as ‘your brother’?
‘Your brother’ is one’s fellow Muslim, a brother by virtue of one’s faith.


b. When can you consider someone to be wronged and how can you help your brother who is wronged? 
When a fellow Muslim becomes a victim of injustice, he is wronged and he needs the help and support from his fellow Muslims. One can help him by raising one’s voice and bringing justice to his case.


c. What does the Prophet mean by ‘Helping a wrongdoer’? Why did the Prophet say this?
 Helping a wrongdoer is to prevent him/her from doing wrong. When you stop someone from doing wrong, you in fact prevent crimes being committed in the society. You help the society in the larger interest.


9. “The Believers are like one man: if his eye suffers, his whole body suffers; if his head suffers, his whole body suffers”. 
a. Why did the Prophet say, “Believers are like one man”?
The Prophet said, “Believers are like one man”, because Islam wants the Muslims to be united, not divided. Strength lies in solidarity.


b. Explain the above quoted Hadith in your own words.
This Hadith has two meanings. One: Suffering of one Muslim is the suffering of other Muslim. This is because, Muslims are part and parcel of one Ummah, one brotherhood. Two: A Muslim cannot neglect the sufferings of other Muslims. He must feel the problems and sufferings of other Muslims, and come to their rescue. To emphasize these points and to make the Muslims aware of the importance of living in unity, the Prophet has given the example of a whole body suffering because of illness or injury in just one part of the body. What an apt example!


10. If any of you sees something evil, he should set it right by his hand; if he is unable to so, then by his tongue; and if he is unable to do even that, then within his heart – but this is the weakest form of faith”. 
a. What do you mean by ‘setting it right by one’s hand’? 
Hand symbolizes power and influence. When one sees an evil happening in the society, one should use all powers at one’s disposal to prevent such a thing from happening.


b. What should a true Muslim do, if he/she comes across an evil happening in the society? 
He/She should stop it from happening by his/her hand: that it, by using all powers at one’s disposal. However, if one is not able to stop it by his hand that is by force then he/she should speak against it and see to it that the evil act is stopped. If he/she is unable to do even that, then he/she should feel bad about it within one’s heart.


c. What is the weakest form of faith? 
The feeling that something evil is happening in the society and that one is unable to stop it with one’s hand or tongue, is the expression of the weakest of faith. Where there is no such feeling, there is no Imaan at all!


11. “The Believers are to one another like a building – each part of it strengthening the others”. 
Explain the above quoted Hadith. 
Like each part of a building supporting and strengthening its other parts, Muslims must mutually support and strengthen each other. Muslims must adopt caring and sharing attitude and be willing to help each other thereby contributing towards the good of the Islamic society.

SURAH AL LAYL


بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
وَاللَّيْلِ إِذَا يَغْشَى (١) وَالنَّهَارِ إِذَا تَجَلَّى (٢) وَمَا خَلَقَ الذَّكَرَ وَالأنْثَى  (٣) إِنَّ سَعْيَكُمْ لَشَتَّى (٤) فَأَمَّا مَنْ أَعْطَى وَاتَّقَى (٥) وَصَدَّقَ بِالْحُسْنَى (٦) فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْيُسْرَى (٧) وَأَمَّا مَنْ بَخِلَ وَاسْتَغْنَى (٨) وَكَذَّبَ بِالْحُسْنَى (٩) فَسَنُيَسِّرُهُ لِلْعُسْرَى (١٠) وَمَا يُغْنِي عَنْهُ مَالُهُ إِذَا تَرَدَّى (١١) إِنَّ عَلَيْنَا لَلْهُدَى (١٢) وَإِنَّ لَنَا لَلآخِرَةَ وَالأولَى (١٣) فَأَنْذَرْتُكُمْ نَارًا تَلَظَّى (١٤) لا يَصْلاهَا إِلا الأشْقَى (١٥) الَّذِي كَذَّبَ وَتَوَلَّى (١٦) وَسَيُجَنَّبُهَا الأتْقَى (١٧) الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّى (١٨) وَمَا لأحَدٍ عِنْدَهُ مِنْ نِعْمَةٍ تُجْزَى (١٩) إِلا ابْتِغَاءَ وَجْهِ رَبِّهِ الأعْلَى (٢٠) وَلَسَوْفَ يَرْضَى (٢١)
     In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful
  1. By the night when it veils
  2. and the day when it shines brightly
  3. and by Him who creates male and female
  4. surely your effort is for different goals
  5. As for the one who gives (to others) and fears Allah,
  6. and is a truthful witness to goodness,
  7. We will ease his way to comfort (in the next life)
  8. But as for the greedy one who keeps everything for himself, thinking that he is self-sufficient,
  9. and lies about goodness,
  10. We will ease his way to hardship
  11. His wealth will not save him when he perishes.
  12. Surely it is for Us to give guidance
  13. And surely to Us belongs the end and the beginning.
  14. Therefore I warn you of a blazing Fire;
  15. none but the miserable one will enter it –
  16. the one who lies about the Truth and turns his back
  17. But the most righteous one will be taken Far away from it –
  18. the one who gives away his wealth to purify himself,
  19. and have in his mind no favour from anyone for which a reward is expected in return.
  20. Other than seeking the Face of his Lord Most High,
  21. he will surely reach complete satisfaction.
Vocabulary & Meanings:
1. اللَّيْلِthe night
النَّهَارِthe day
3.  الذَّكَرَ– the male
4. الأنْثَىthe female
5. سَعْيَكُمْyour effort, your endeavor
6. أَعْطَىgives
7. صَدَّقَtestifies to the truth
8. بِالْحُسْنَىwith goodness
9. لِلْيُسْرَىto comfort, to ease
10. بَخِلَa greedy one, a miser
11. كَذَّبَlies
12. لِلْعُسْرَىto hardship, to difficulty
13. مَالُهُhis wealth
14. لَلْهُدَىto (give) guidance
15. نَارًاfire
16. الأشْقَىthe miserable one
17. َتَوَلَّى– turns his back
18. الأتْقَىthe righteous one, the one who fears Allah
19. يُؤْتِيgives
20. وَجْهِ رَبِّهِFace of his Lord

Questions and Answers:
1. In this Surah, Allah is taking oath on certain things. List them.
Allah takes oath on:
          1. The night    2. The day    3. On Himself

2. What is meant by “surely your effort is for different goals”?
Allah says that human beings live and endeavor for different goals. The aim and struggle of life of one person is different from that of others.

3. What do you mean by ‘giving to others’?
It means sharing the Allah-given wealth with the poor, the needy, and in the cause of Islam.
4. Explain what is meant by being ‘truthful witness to goodness’?
To believe in Allah and to be believe that righteousness is inspired by Him and to live by the teachings of the Qur’an and the Sunnah. Goodness is a comprehensive word, which includes goodness of belief, morals and deeds. Goodness of belief means that one should give up polytheism; atheism, and disbelief, and affirm faith in the Oneness of Allah (Tawheed), the Hereafter (Aakhirah) and the Prophethood. Affirming belief in goodness of morals and deeds is to live by the teachings of Qur’an and Hadith.
5. In this Surah, Allah says, ‘We will ease his way to comfort’. Whose way will Allah ease to comfort?
Allah will make the way easy towards achieving comfort for ‘the one who gives to others and fears Allah, and is a truthful witness to goodness’.
6. In this Surah, Allah says, ‘We will ease his way to hardship’. Whose way will Allah ease to hardship?
Allah will make the way easy towards hardship for ‘the greedy one who keeps everything for himself, thinking that he is self-sufficient, and lies about goodness’.
7. What do you understand by ‘Surely it is for Us to give guidance’?
It means that Allah is the One who bestows the Right Guidance upon people & that it is the exclusive right of Allah to bestow Guidance upon His noble creation.
8. What is referred to as ‘the blazing Fire’ and who will enter it?
The blazing Fire means the Hell – the Jahannum. None but the miserable one will enter it – the one who lies about the Truth and turns his back.
9. Why does the Righteous one gives his wealth to others?
The Righteous one gives his wealth to others ‘to purify himself’ and ‘to seek the pleasure of none but Allah’.
10. Is it right to expect favours from those with whom you share your wealth?
No, it is not right to expect favours from those with whom we share our wealth.
11. Who will attain complete satisfaction?
The one who does things to please Allah, and Allah only, will attain complete satisfaction.
  

From Surah al Baqarah (Verses 285, 286)

     1.   Learn by heart the last two verses of Surah al Baqarah


     2.   Fill in the blanks with the EXACT words:
بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ
آمَنَ الرَّسُولُ بِمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ رَبِّهِ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ كُلٌّ آمَنَ بِاللَّهِ وَمَلائِكَتِهِ وَكُتُبِهِ وَرُسُلِهِ لا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْ رُسُلِهِ وَقَالُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا غُفْرَانَكَ رَبَّنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ (٢٨٥)


لا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلا وُسْعَهَا لَهَا مَا كَسَبَتْ وَعَلَيْهَا مَا اكْتَسَبَتْ رَبَّنَا لا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِنْ نَسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا رَبَّنَا وَلا تَحْمِلْ عَلَيْنَا إِصْرًا كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِنَا رَبَّنَا وَلا تُحَمِّلْنَا مَا لا طَاقَةَ لَنَا بِهِ وَاعْفُ عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنْتَ مَوْلانَا فَانْصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ الْكَافِرِينَ (٢٨٦)
      3. Fill in the blanks with the missing words:
285. The Messenger believes in what has been revealed to him by His Lord,
And so do the believers, Each one believes in Allah, His angels, His books, and His Messengers. And we make no distinction (They say) between any of His Messengers,
They say, “We hear, and we obey: Grant us Your forgiveness, Our Lord,
To You is all journey’s end”.

286. Allah does not a burden a soul beyond capacity. Each will enjoy what (good) he earns, as indeed each will suffer (the wrong) he does.
Our Lord! Take us not to task if we forget, or make a mistake.
Our Lord! Charge us not with a load such as You laid upon those before us.
Our Lord! Do not burden us beyond what we have the strength to bear.
And pardon us, And forgive us, And grant us Your Mercy
You are our Protector. And help us against the unbelieving people.
       4. Answer the following questions:
1. What do the Messenger and the believers believe in?
The Messenger and the Believers believe in Allah, His angels, His Books and His Messengers.
2. Is it right to make distinction between different Messengers of Allah?
No, it isn’t because the verse clearly says that the believers in Islam ‘make no distinction between any of His Messengers’.
3. What is meant by, ‘we hear, and we obey”?
It means that the Muslims, upon knowing the commands of Allah and the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), practice them in their life.
4. To Whom is all journey’s end?
To Allah is all journey’s end.
5. “Allah does not burden a soul beyond capacity”. Explain
It means that Allah lays not upon a person any responsibility, which he cannot carry out. As accountability comes with responsibility, it also means that Allah will not take to account those things that happen involuntarily. For example: We have no control over our thoughts. Evil thoughts that enter our minds and hearts without our intention and control, and are not put into action, stand excused in the sight of Allah. 
6. Does Islam believe in the transfer of one’s sins to others?
No, it doesn’t believe in the transfer of one’s sins to others. According to Islam, every man/woman is responsible for his/her own deeds, be they good or bad.
7. Whose help must be sought against the mischief of the unbelieving people?
Allah’s help must be sought against the mischief of the unbelieving people, for He alone is our Protector and Helper.

THE PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلم – Part 3

1. How long did Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم stay at Badr after the victory of the Muslims? 
Allah’s Messenger stayed at Badr for three nights after the victory of the Muslims.


2. What was the practice of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم concerning the dead bodies? 
The practice of Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم was to give the dead a burial.


3. What did he order about the corpses of Quraysh leaders? 
As the numbers of dead persons were large, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم ordered that the corpses of the Quraysh leaders be thrown into one of the dry wells of Badr.


4. How did Muslims get rid of Umayyah bin Khalaf’s dead body? 
His body had swelled within his armour. It began to break as they tried to move it. So they left it where it was and heaped sand and stones upon it.


5. How did the Muslims in Madinah receive the news of the battle of Badr? 
They received the news with delight and happiness. They came out from their houses and welcomed the victory with shouts of joy.


6. Why did Uthman bin Affan not been able to participate in the battle? 
Uthman bin Affan was not able to participate in the battle of Badr as his wife, Ruqayyah, was sick and he had to stay behind to look after her.


7. When did Ruqayyah die? 
Ruqayyah died in the second year of Hijra when the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and the Muslims were away fighting the enemy at the Battle of Badr.


8. The victory of Badr was most inspiring for the Muslims. Explain. 
By all means, the victory of Badr was most inspiring for the Muslims. They fought against a force that was no match to them. They did not have sufficient provisions. They lacked proper camping families. Most of the Muslim fighters were young with little or military experience. In spite all these drawbacks, they won the battle against the mighty enemy. This victory was a notable victory for the Muslims and they spirits rose high as it inspired them towards the cause of Islam.


9. How was the defeat at Badr a serious misfortune for the Makkans? 
The Makkans were badly shaken by the defeat at Badr that they hardly believed what they heard. They had lost most of their influential and trained men. Their defeat shook their prestige completely. It had a marked effect on Abu Lahab who was seized by a severed and died a few days later.


10. How did the women of Quraysh mourn their dead? What was the effect of defeat on Hind?
The women of the Quraysh shaved off their heads. They whipped themselves. Hind said, ‘I shall not mourn them publicly until I have avenged them. Fat and perfume shall be forbidden to me until we have defeated the enemy’.


11. How did Abu Sufyan react to the disaster? 
Abu Sufyan publicly announced that he had vowed to have nothing to do with oil and marital life till he had carried out a raid against the Muslims.


12. What did Abu Sufyan do to fulfil his vow? 
To fulfil his vow, he led a party of 200 riders to raid Madinah.


13. Who were the Bani Qaynuqa? Why were they expelled from Madinah? 
Bani Qaynuqa were one of the three famous Jewish tribes of Madinah. They were expelled from Madinah because they ill-treated a woman and killed a Muslim


14. Who was Fatimah? When was she married? 
Fatimah was the youngest daughter of the Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم. She was married to Ali (R.A) in 2 H


15. Who was Umm Kulthum? To whom was she married? 
Umm Kuthum was a daughter of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم. She was married to Uthman bin Affan.


16. Mention the things that were made obligatory in the second year of hijrah? It was in the second year of Hijrah that fasting in the month of Ramadan, Zakatul Fitr, Salah for Idul Fitr and Idul Adha and sacrifice on the occasion of Idul Adha, were made obligatory.


17. Write Short notes on ‘the treatment of the captives of Badr’. 
The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم  accepted the suggestion of Abu Bakr to free the captives of Badr against ransom. The captives, who were entrusted in twos and fours to the Muslims, were released against a ransom of 4000 dirhams each. The very poor, were set free without taking anything. The educated among them, who could not afford to pay, were required to teach a number of illiterate Muslims how to read and write in order to earn their freedom.

PROPHET NUH عليه السّلام

1. Who was Nuh? Describe some of his qualities?
Nuh عليه السّلام was a Prophet of Allah who lived many years after Adam. He was noble and kind-hearted. He was pure of heart and conduct. He was worthy of trust.
2. What did his people say when Nuh عليه السّلام began to call them to Allah?
They rejected him and his message. They accused him of his falsehood.
3. What did Nuh’s childhood friends say particularly?
They said, ‘Nuh used to play with us during his childhood. We sat together and often talked. When did Prophethood descend upon him? In the cover of the night or in broad daylight?’
4. How did Prophet Nuh عليه السّلام react to their cutting remarks?
He reacted with patience and argued in the humblest manner. He said, “I am a Messenger of Allah, the Sustainer of the worlds. My advice to you is sincere. I know from Allah something that you do not know’.
5. What did different gods did Nuh’s people worship? What did they think of idol worship?
Nuh’s people worshipped five different gods. Wadd, Suwa, Yaghuth, Ya’uq and Nasr.
They thought that worshipping idols was the best thing to do. They considered that those who did not worship idols were in the wrong.
6. What was Nuh’s عليه السّلام message to his people?
Nuh عليه السّلام told his people, “I have been sent to you with a clear warning. I am to you a Prophet, worthy of all trust.”  He also said, “O my people! Worship Allah. You have no other god but Him. I fear for you the punishment of a dreadful day”.
7. In what various ways did Nuh عليه السّلام warn them? What was its result?
He told them that if they don’t give up the worship of idols, the punishment on a dreadful day is certain. He even humbly said, ‘Do you not see how Allah has created the sky? Do you not see how He has set up the moon as light and set up the sun as a radiant lamp?’ He reminded them to be grateful to their Allah. But all his efforts and warnings were in vain. Only a few followed Nuh عليه السّلام  
8. Why did the rich and wealthy reject Nuh’s message?
There are two reasons: One, they were not ready to accept Nuh عليه السّلام because he was poor. They said, ‘Why should Allah choose a poor like Nuh عليه السّلام to be His Prophet? Are we, the rich, dead?’ Secondly, abundance of wealth had made them blind to see the reality. They were puffed with arrogance and pride which blocked all channels for correction.
9. What did they finally demand from Nuh عليه السّلام ?
They finally said, “O Nuh, you have disputed long with us. Bring upon us what you threaten us with, if you are of truthful”.
10. What was Nuh’s عليه السّلام reply?
He replied by saying, “Only Allah will bring the punishment on you. You will not be able to escape it when it comes. My advice then will not benefit you, even if I desired to give you good counsel”.
11. What did Allah at last reveal to Nuh عليه السّلام ? What did his people say when they saw Nuh عليه السّلام building the ark?
At last Allah revealed to Nuh, “None of your people will believe except those who have believed already. So be not sad at what they do. And construct an ark under Our eyes and Our inspiration. Indeed they are about to be drowned.”
When his people saw him building the ark, they started hurling taunting at him saying, ‘O Nuh, what is all this? When did you turn a carpenter? You will never make it float. You are miles away from any shore. On what will this ark sail? On sandy plains?”.

UMAR IBN AL KHATTAB رضي الله عنه

1. What kind of man was Umar before he accepted Islam?
For a time Umar had been one of the greatest enemies and persecutors of Islam. He used to often beat Muslims mercilessly. He was a man of violent temper.
2. Who had gathered in a house at as-Safa?
The Prophet and about forty of his companions had gathered in a house at as-Safa.
3. Why did Nu’aym tell Umar it would be better for him to go home and correct his own family first? Who was Nu’aym?
Umar was fiercely proceeding with weapons when Nua’ym stopped him to know what his intent was. When Umar said that his intention was to kill the Prophet, Nu’aym diverted him saying, ‘go to your house and check the matter there as your sister and her husband have become Muslims’.
Nu’aym ibn Abdullah رضي الله عنه belonged to Umar’s tribe and had become a Muslim but kept his faith in secret.
4. What were Fatimah and her husband doing when Umar entered their house
Fatimah رضي الله عنها and her husband, Sa’id bin Zayd رضي الله عنه , were reading a portion of the Surah Taha when Umar entered their house.
5. Why did Umar begin to beat Sa’id bin Zayd  رضي الله عنه? What did Fatimah do?
He began to beat Sa’id bin Zayd رضي الله عنه because he had become a Muslim. Seeing her brother beating her husband, Fatimahرضي الله عنها  rushed in between to defend him.
6. Why did Fatimahرضي الله عنها , at last, agree to give Umar the Sheets they were reading from? Which Surah did they contain?
When Umar beat his sister, she started bleeding. Even then she did not lose courage and did not abandon Islam. Has so struck with Fatimah’s sincerity and courage that he asked for the sheets from which she had been reading. Seeing his brother’s change in attitude, Fatimah agreed to give the Sheets which contained the Surah Taha.
7. What effect did the Surah have on Umar, when he began to read it? What did he do then?
The effect was so phenomenal that it transformed the total personality of Umar, forever.  He exclaimed, ‘How fine and noble this speech is!’ Umar was so moved that he went straightway to the Prophet. He embraced Islam, and become one of its strongest supporters and champions. His رضي الله عنه conversion took place in the sixth year of Prophethood.
8. What was Khabbab bin al-Aratt رضي الله عنه doing in the house of the couple?
He was reading and teaching the portion of the Qur’an to the couple.

PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلّم Part 2

1. How did Abu Sufyan’s trade caravan get back to Makkah safely? What had the Quraysh done by that time?
Abu Sufyan’s trade caravan changed its normal route. He reached Makkah safely by forced marches and winding routes. By the time he got back to Makkah, the Quraysh army had already left for Madinah.
2. When did Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم set out from Madinah? Give a brief description of the Muslim army.
Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم out from Madinah on the 12th of Ramadhan in 2 H at the head of 313 faithful Muslims. They were very poorly armed. They had only seventy camels and two horses between them. Three or four men were assigned to one camel, which they rode in turns.
3. What arrangement did Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم make while leaving Madinah?
While leaving Madinah, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم Amr ibn Maktoum to lead the prayers. Abu Lubabah was appointed to be the governor of the city.
4. Why did Umayr ibn Abi Waqqas burst into tears? What was his heart’s desire? Was it fulfilled?
He burst into tears because he was asked to leave on account of his young age. His heart’s desire was to participate in the battle and become a shaheed (martyr) in the way of Allah. Yes, his heart’s desire was fulfilled.
5. Why did some of the Makkan warriors express their desire to return to Makkah? What did Abu Jahl do?
When Makkan warriors got the news that the caravan of Abu Sufyan had reached Makkah safely, they expressed their desire to withdraw. There was no reason left to fight. But Abu Jahl did not agree and insisted that they should march forward and fight the Muslims.
6. Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم that the bells on the neck of camels be removed. Explain.
Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم that the bells on the neck of camels be removed. This was clearly to conceal the night marches of the troops. It was a military tactic.
7. What happened when the Muslim army arrived at the valley of Dhafiran?
When they arrived at the valley of Dhafiran, they got the news that the Quraysh had come out to fight the Muslims. This news completely changed the situation.
8. Contrast the Muslim force with that of the Makkans.
Both the armies differed in many ways. The Muslims were a force only in name. They did not have sufficient provisions. They lacked proper camping facilities. Their soldiers counted only 313 with 70 camels and 2 horses. Most of the fighters were young with little or no experience. They stood in pitiful contrast to the Makkan force which consisted of 1000 warriors, clad in chain mail. They had vast war material: 600 archers, 700 camels, 100 horses including trained-fighters like Abu Jahl, Utbah and Umayyah.
9. What certain unique things did the Muslims possess which the Makkans badly lacked?
In sharp contrast to the Makkan force, Muslims possessed certain unique things which the Makkans badly lacked – it was the flame of their unfaltering faith; it was their God- fearing character.

PROPHET MUHAMMAD صلى الله عليه وسلم Part 1

1. What factors led to the Battle of Badr? When it was fought?
The rapid spread of Islam in Madinah increased the anxiety of the Quraysh who were already unfriendly with the Muslims. The jealousy of the Jews and the conspiracies of the hypocrites like the power-hungry Abdullah ibn Ubayy – all these contributed towards the Battle of Badr which took place on 17th Ramadan, 2 H.
2. What was the reason of the jealousy of the Jews towards the Muslims?
As Islam began to spread fasgt, some Jewish monks and learned Rabbis like Abdullah ibn Salam embraced Islam. This inflamed the jealousy of the Jews.
3. What kind of people tried to break the Muslim harmony?
Such people that had disease in their hearts entered Islam hypocritically. They made a show of their Islam. They were from the Jewish community and from the Mushrikeen as well. They secretly worked to break the Muslim harmony.
4. Recall the signs of a hypocrite as mentioned in a Hadith.
The Signs of a hypocrite are three: When he speaks, he lies. When he makes a promise, he breaks it. And when he is trusted, he deceives.
5. Why did Allah’s Messenger receive a Revelation that permitted Muslims to fight?
After the Prophet’s migration to Madinah, when the Muslims were living under the constant threat of a Quraysh invasion, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم   received a Revelation that permitted Muslims to fight.
6. What chief point do you notice in this permission?
The chief point in this permission is that the Muslims were asked to take the defensive stand.
7. In what conditions does Islam permit war?
Islam permits war only for self-defence, when non-Muslims make or attempt aggression on Muslims, or interfere with the spread of peaceful message to mankind.
8. What precautions did the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم   take against a possible Quraysh attack? What was the main function of the various expeditions sent out Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم ? What is deterrence?
As a first measure, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم   sent out small bands of men. Their duty was to keep an eye on the movements of the Quraysh and their main function was to watch and obtain information about the movement of the enemy. The policy of discouraging an attack by making one’s enemy fear a counter-attack is called ‘deterrence’.
9. Describe the expedition of Abdullah ibn Jahsh? Was Abdullah ibn Jahsh, as the leader of the expedition, permitted to act violently?
In 2 H, Allah’s Messenger sent out a band of eight Emigrants under the leadership of Abdullah ibn Jahsh. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم   gave him a sealed letter of instructions. They were not to open it till they were two days’ journey from Madinah. In due course when Abdullah opened the letter, he found in it instructions to proceed to Nakhlah, on the road from Taif to Makkah and lie there in wait for the Quraysh and find out what they were doing.  As the leader of the expedition, Abdullah ibn Jahsh was not permitted to act violently.
10. What news did the Muslims receive in the month of Shaban 2 H?
In the month of Shaban 2 H, the Muslims learnt that a great trade caravan had started on its journey from Syria and would be passing Madinah a few weeks later.
11. Give a brief description of the trade caravan led by Abu Sufyan?
The trade caravan led by Abu Sufyan consisted of 1000 camels. The merchandise was worth 50,000 dinars. Everyone in Makkah had a share in it. Everyone in Makkah was, therefore, concerned about its safety. About 70 men accompanied it.
12. Why did Abu Sufyan send a fast-riding messenger to Makkah? What was its
result?
Abu Sufyan realised that the Muslims were planning to ‘attack’ his caravan. He sent out a fast-riding messenger to Makkah with an urgent request to cover the area of danger. The result of this was the mustering of a powerful army.
13. How strong was the Makkan army?
The Makkan army consisted of about 1000 armoured soldiers, 700 camels and over 100 horses.

THE ZAKATUL FITR

1. What is the Zakatul Fitr?
Zakatul Fitr means the purifying dues given on ending the fasts of Ramadhan. It is a charity given as an act of purification.
2. On whom Zakatul Fitr is binding?
Zakatul Fitr is binding on each and every Muslim who possesses more than he needs.
3. What is the difference between Zakah and Zakatul Fitr?
ZAKAH:                                                           
* Zakah is one of the five pillars of Islam. 
* Zakah can be given any time of the year   
* Zakah is obligatory only on rich Muslims    
* Zakah is levied on cash and kind.                
ZAKATUL FITR: 
* It is not one of the five pillars of Islam
* It must be given on the day of Id-ul-Fitr or a day or two before the day of Id
* Zakatul Fitr is obligatory on every Muslim who possesses more than he needs.
* Zakatul Fitr is levied on individuals.

4. What is the main aim of Zakatul Fitr?
The main aim is to allow the poor and the needy enjoy the Id-ul- Fitr.
.
5. What does Zakatul Fitr purify?
It purifies the fasters of their errors, mistakes and short comings that happened in the month of Ramadhan. 
It helps to perfect the fast, because good deeds drive evil deeds.
6. Who are entitled to receive the Zakatul Fitr? When should it be paid?
Eight categories of people are entitled to receive the Zakatul Fitr:
            1. The poor (Fuqara)
            2. The needy (Masakeen)
            3. Those employed to collect the fund
            4. those who have been inclined towards Islam
            5. to free the captives
            6. those in debt 
            7. those fighting in the cause of Allah, and
            8. the wayfarer or traveller.
It should be paid either a couple of days before Id-ul-Fitr or on the day of Id-ul-Fitr but before offering the Salatul Id-ul-Fitr.

OBEDIENCE TO PARENTS

1. Where were the three men going?
They were out for a walk.
2. How did they get shut in a cave?
When they were out walking, a heavy storm forced them to take shelter in a mountain cave. Strong wind and heavy rain rolled down a huge piece of stone from above the cave. The stone came rolling and settled at the entrance of the cave. This is how they got shut in that cave.
3. How did they plan to get away from the cave?
They planned to get away from the cave by calling on Allah by recollecting the acts of kindness they had done merely for His sake.
4. What was the effect of their Du’as?
The effect was that their Du’as were answered; the huge stone which blocked the entrance gave way and they were able to go home safely.
5. What does the Holy Qur’an command us about parents?
In the Qur’an, Allah has commanded us to be kind to our parents thus:
“And your Lord has decreed: Do not worship any but Him, and be good to parents. If one or both of them grow old in your company, say not to them ‘Ugh’, neither chide them, but say gentle words to them, and lower to them the wing of humbleness out of kindness and say: My Lord have mercy upon them as they nourished me when I was small”.
6. Why do parents correct their children?
Parents correct their children because they want them to be good.
7. “Paradise is at the feet of mothers”. Explain.
Kindness, respect and obedience to one’s mother will lead to Paradise.
8. What are our duties towards our parents?
It is our duty to cherish them, obey them, honour them, be kind to them, help them in all possible ways, and make Dua for them. We are commanded not to say even an ‘Ugh’ to them.
9. Mention various ways in which one could help one’s parents.
Parents would be very happy if you obey them and listen to what they say. This would be of a great help to them. One can also help them by doing household jobs and keeping the house clean. One may help them by comforting them and by looking after them in their sickness.
10. What could one do if one’s parents are dead?
Pray to Allah for their forgiveness and success in the Hereafter.
11. Disobedience to parents is a major sin. Explain with reference to the Hadith quoted in this chapter.
“Shall I not inform you about the three major sins?”, once asked the Prophet. Those who were present replied: Yes, O Messenger of Allah.  He said, “Associating partners with Allah, disobedience to parents and telling lies and bearing false witness”.
In this Hadith, the Prophet of Islam has clearly categorised disobedience to parents as one of the major sins. It is the right of the parents that their children obey and treat them well!

SURAH AL MUTAF’FIFEEN (Ayat 1 – 9)

Note: Refer your Text Book for the Arabic verses and the English translation
1. Write the meaning of the following words:
  – woeوَيْلٌ 1.
                        those who give less المُطَفِّفِينَ 2.
 – measureاكْتَالُوا 3.
  – take in fullيَسْتَوْفُونَ 4.
 – weightوزن 5.
 – lossخْسِر6.
 – thinkيَظُنُّ 7.
 – resurrected مَّبْعُوثُونَ 8.
 – great/tremendousعَظِيمٍ 9.
 – will standيَقوم 10.
 – noكَلاَّ 11.
 – the wicked onesالْفُجَّارِ 12.
 – inلَفِى 13.
 – (eternal) prison  سِجِّينٍ 14.
 – inscribedمَّرْقُومٌ 15.
2. Question & Answers:
1. Highlight the main points mentioned in the first nine verses of Surah Al Mutaffifeen?
The beginning verses of this Surah refer to commercial dealings and it condemns all kinds of fraud in business. The Surah says that such people opt for a short-time happiness of this world and forget the eternal happiness of the Hereafter. They don’t care about the Day of Judgement, a Great Day, in which dead will be raised and brought before the Lord of the worlds. The wicked people cannot escape the punishment because their deeds are well-recorded in a book called ‘Sijjeen’.
2. What is meant by ‘woe to al-mutaffifeen’?
It is an open condemnation from Almighty Allah of all those people who deal in fraud while doing business. It also signifies a Promise from Allah that the mutaffifeen will be punished severely in the Day of Judgement where they will face ultimate loss and destruction!
3. Describe the nature of the people called ‘mutaffifeen’.
The word ‘mutaffifeen’ comes from the word ‘tatfeef’ which means ‘to be stingy in measurement and weight’.  Allah describes that these mutaffifeen are those people who, when they have to receive by measure or weight from others, demand in full measure. But they when they have to give by measure or weight to others, give less than what is due. Their intention is to make profit by cheating the customers in a way that the poor customer does not even know of what and of how much he is being deprived by the seller. 
4. Bring out the relationship between honesty in commercial dealings and the belief in the Hereafter.
Those who indulge in fraud in their commercial dealings mean only one thing, which is Profit and making more and more money. It is an inevitable result of the heedlessness of the Hereafter.
Unless the people realise that one day they would have to appear before their Lord and account for their worldly business dealings even, it is not possible that they would adopt piety and righteousness in their business dealings. Man can develop true and enduring honesty only when he fears Allah and His punishment in the Hereafter.
5. What is the name of the book in which the deeds of the wicked people are recorded?
The name of the book in which the deeds of the wicked people are recorded and preserved is SIJ’JEEN.