ISLAM AND THE WORLD

1. Who was Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi? What is his contribution to the various fields of Mathematics?
He was one of the greatest Muslim mathematicians. He was the originator of the science of algebra and his contribution to mathematics is indeed great. It was through his works that the West became aware of the Arabic numerals called algorithms after him.
2. What was the name of the person who invented the first computing machine? What is his contribution to the science of numbers?
The name of the person who invented the first computing machine was Ghayath-ud-din Jamshid al-Kshani. He was the mathematician who invented the system of decimal fraction.
3. What new contributions did the Muslims make to the fields of geometry and navigation?
In the field of geometry, the Muslims studied classical Greek works and made new contributions to it by solving many of the geometrical problems, which had baffled the earlier scientists. They established relationships between algebra and geometry and solved a number of algebraic problems.
In the field of navigation, the Muslims spread the use of astrolable for sailors, and they drew up some of the first and the most accurate astronomical tables.
4. Give brief account of the Muslim travelers? Which is the most outstanding and the popular of the ‘Travels”?
Muslim traders and geographers traveled extensively during the 7th and the 9th centuries A.D. and reached as far as China and Russia. The accounts of Sulayman at-Tajir and Ahmed ibn Fadlan tell us some of the interesting things about China and Russia.
The most outstanding and the popular of the ‘Travels” is the “Travels of Ibn Battutah”.
5. Mention some of the words that have come to the English language from Arabic.
Some of the words that have come to the English language from Arabic are as follows:
Algebra, shawl, divan, coffee, chemistry, syrup, saffron, crimson, sugar and zero.
WRITE SHORT NOTES ON:
1. THE CITY OF CORDOBA DURING MUSLIMS
It was the capital city of Muslim Andalusia (Spain). Cordoba in Spain was as large as Baghdad. It had handsome palaces, mosques, libraries, schools and gardens of great splendour. The streets of Cordoba were paved and lit with lamps. The city enjoyed a constant supply of fresh water. Dense groves surrounded the city. There were as many as 50 hospitals and 600 mosques. This speaks greatly of the Muslim contribution to the development of the city and the country at large.
2.  THE GREAT MOSQUE AT CORDOBA:
The most wonderful of all the mosques of Spain was the great mosque of Cordoba. The mosque had 1293 columns to support its roof. Chandeliers illuminated the building; one chandelier holding a thousand lights, the small ones twelve. Special kind of bronze plates were used in the making of its doors. The central gate had gold plates fixed to it. The coloured marbles, the gleam of gold, the rich educations made the mosque the most charming masterpiece of Muslim architecture.
3. UMAR AL-KHAYYAM:
Umar al Khayyam who is popularly known as the Persian poet to the world, was in fact a great mathematician and an astronomer. He was one of the Muslim mathematicians who established relationships between algebra and geometry. He solved many algebraic problems and wrote many books of mathematics. He was the authority in the field of geometry.

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