1. When did Allah’s Messenger decide to perform al-Umrah? Why?
Allah’s Messenger decided to perform al-Umrah towards the end of the sixth year of Hijrah in 628 A.D because he was inspired by Allah to perform the Umrah.
2. How many companions accompanied him?
1400 companions accompanied him.
3. Why had they donned the Ihram? Why were they almost unarmed?
They had donned the Ihram because they were proceeding with the intention of performing the Umrah. They were almost unarmed because they did not intend to fight.
4. What happened when Allah’s Messenger and his companions approached Hudaybiyah?
When Allah’s Messenger and his companions approached Hudaybiyah, his camel stopped and knelt. It refused to get up. Allah’s Messenger understood that the camel was inspired by Allah and that Allah wanted him and the Muslims to camp at the plain of Hudaybiyah.
5. What did The Prophet remark about Qaswa?
The Prophet remarked, ‘Qaswa is not stubborn by nature; but He who held the elephant, holds her’.
6. What did the Prophet do when his companions complained of thirst?
When his companions complained of thirst, the Prophet took an arrow from his quiver and asked one of his companions to throw it into the eaters of the hollow. The man did as he was bidden, and water surged up plentifully. The companions quenched their thirst.
7. Why did the Prophet send Uthman to Makkah?
The Prophet sent Uthman to Makkah as his envoy to discuss matters and negotiate with the Quraysh.
8. Why did Uthman refuse to perform his own Tawaf, when the Quraysh invited him to do so? Uthman refused to perform his own Tawaf, when the Quraysh invited him to do so, because he was unwilling to perform the Tawaf prior to the Prophet performing it.
9. What is the Bay’at ar-Ridwan?
When Uthman bin Affan was late in returning from Makkah, a rumour spread that he had been murdered. The Prophet, then, assembled his companions and, sitting under a wild acacia tree, took a pledge from each one of his followers that they would remain steadfast, and fight to the death. This Pledge is known as the Bay’at ar-Ridwan – the Pledge of Good Pleasure.
10. What were the main features of the treaty of Hudaybiyah? In what way was it helpful to the Muslims in the long run?
The main features of the Treaty of Hudaybiyah were as follows: There would be peace for ten years. During this period, Muslims could go to Makkah and the Quraysh could go to Syria through the Muslim routes. There would be one-sided extradition – the Makkans taking refuge with the Prophet would be handed over on demand to the Quraysh, but Muslims taking refuge in Makkah would not be returned to the Prophet. The Muslims would depart from Makkah this year. They would be free to perform al-Umrah the next year and remain there in Makkah for three days only. Any tribe wishing to sign an agreement with either the Muslims or the Quraysh would be able to do so. The Treaty was helpful to the Muslims in the long run. Since there was peace prevailing between the people of Makkah and Madinah, it paved a way for the spread of Islam among the Pagan Arabian tribes. Muslims were able to win over the hearts of hundreds and thousands of people.
11. Why did the Prophet command Abu Jandal to return to Makkans? What lesson does this incident teach us?
The Prophet commanded Abu Jandal to return to Makkans because as per the Treaty of Hudaybiyah, the Muslims were to be returned to Makkans. This teaches Muslims that they should keep up the words of an agreement and be true to the pacts of the Treaty.
12. What did Umar (R.A) do at this point? At that point, Umar (R.A) was unable to control himself and he started questioning about the Prophet’s prophethood.
13. How did Allah’s Messenger calm him down?
Allah’s Messenger calmed him down by telling him that Allah will give Muslims the ultimate victory. He also assured him that he will surely go to Makkah and perform Tawaf one day.
14. How did the companions react when the Prophet bade them to sacrifice their animals?
They simply, broken at heart, gazed at him in bewildered silence.
15. What did Umm Salamah (R.A) advise Allah’s Messenger to do? What was its effect?
Umm Salamah (R.A) advised Allah’s Messenger to sacrifice the animal without saying a word to the companions. The effect was that the companions followed suit.
16. Which Surah descended upon the Prophet during his return march to Madinah?
Surah Al-Fath descended upon the Prophet during his return march to Madinah.