1. How did Abu Sufyan’s trade caravan get back to Makkah safely? What had the Quraysh done by that time?
Abu Sufyan’s trade caravan changed its normal route. He reached Makkah safely by forced marches and winding routes. By the time he got back to Makkah, the Quraysh army had already left for Madinah.
2. When did Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم set out from Madinah? Give a brief description of the Muslim army.
Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم out from Madinah on the 12th of Ramadhan in 2 H at the head of 313 faithful Muslims. They were very poorly armed. They had only seventy camels and two horses between them. Three or four men were assigned to one camel, which they rode in turns.
3. What arrangement did Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم make while leaving Madinah?
While leaving Madinah, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم Amr ibn Maktoum to lead the prayers. Abu Lubabah was appointed to be the governor of the city.
4. Why did Umayr ibn Abi Waqqas burst into tears? What was his heart’s desire? Was it fulfilled?
He burst into tears because he was asked to leave on account of his young age. His heart’s desire was to participate in the battle and become a shaheed (martyr) in the way of Allah. Yes, his heart’s desire was fulfilled.
5. Why did some of the Makkan warriors express their desire to return to Makkah? What did Abu Jahl do?
When Makkan warriors got the news that the caravan of Abu Sufyan had reached Makkah safely, they expressed their desire to withdraw. There was no reason left to fight. But Abu Jahl did not agree and insisted that they should march forward and fight the Muslims.
6. Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم that the bells on the neck of camels be removed. Explain.
Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلّم that the bells on the neck of camels be removed. This was clearly to conceal the night marches of the troops. It was a military tactic.
7. What happened when the Muslim army arrived at the valley of Dhafiran?
When they arrived at the valley of Dhafiran, they got the news that the Quraysh had come out to fight the Muslims. This news completely changed the situation.
8. Contrast the Muslim force with that of the Makkans.
Both the armies differed in many ways. The Muslims were a force only in name. They did not have sufficient provisions. They lacked proper camping facilities. Their soldiers counted only 313 with 70 camels and 2 horses. Most of the fighters were young with little or no experience. They stood in pitiful contrast to the Makkan force which consisted of 1000 warriors, clad in chain mail. They had vast war material: 600 archers, 700 camels, 100 horses including trained-fighters like Abu Jahl, Utbah and Umayyah.
9. What certain unique things did the Muslims possess which the Makkans badly lacked?
In sharp contrast to the Makkan force, Muslims possessed certain unique things which the Makkans badly lacked – it was the flame of their unfaltering faith; it was their God- fearing character.