1. What factors led to the Battle of Badr? When it was fought?
The rapid spread of Islam in Madinah increased the anxiety of the Quraysh who were already unfriendly with the Muslims. The jealousy of the Jews and the conspiracies of the hypocrites like the power-hungry Abdullah ibn Ubayy – all these contributed towards the Battle of Badr which took place on 17th Ramadan, 2 H.
2. What was the reason of the jealousy of the Jews towards the Muslims?
As Islam began to spread fasgt, some Jewish monks and learned Rabbis like Abdullah ibn Salam embraced Islam. This inflamed the jealousy of the Jews.
3. What kind of people tried to break the Muslim harmony?
Such people that had disease in their hearts entered Islam hypocritically. They made a show of their Islam. They were from the Jewish community and from the Mushrikeen as well. They secretly worked to break the Muslim harmony.
4. Recall the signs of a hypocrite as mentioned in a Hadith.
The Signs of a hypocrite are three: When he speaks, he lies. When he makes a promise, he breaks it. And when he is trusted, he deceives.
5. Why did Allah’s Messenger receive a Revelation that permitted Muslims to fight?
After the Prophet’s migration to Madinah, when the Muslims were living under the constant threat of a Quraysh invasion, the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم received a Revelation that permitted Muslims to fight.
6. What chief point do you notice in this permission?
The chief point in this permission is that the Muslims were asked to take the defensive stand.
7. In what conditions does Islam permit war?
Islam permits war only for self-defence, when non-Muslims make or attempt aggression on Muslims, or interfere with the spread of peaceful message to mankind.
8. What precautions did the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم take against a possible Quraysh attack? What was the main function of the various expeditions sent out Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم ? What is deterrence?
As a first measure, Allah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم sent out small bands of men. Their duty was to keep an eye on the movements of the Quraysh and their main function was to watch and obtain information about the movement of the enemy. The policy of discouraging an attack by making one’s enemy fear a counter-attack is called ‘deterrence’.
9. Describe the expedition of Abdullah ibn Jahsh? Was Abdullah ibn Jahsh, as the leader of the expedition, permitted to act violently?
In 2 H, Allah’s Messenger sent out a band of eight Emigrants under the leadership of Abdullah ibn Jahsh. The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم gave him a sealed letter of instructions. They were not to open it till they were two days’ journey from Madinah. In due course when Abdullah opened the letter, he found in it instructions to proceed to Nakhlah, on the road from Taif to Makkah and lie there in wait for the Quraysh and find out what they were doing. As the leader of the expedition, Abdullah ibn Jahsh was not permitted to act violently.
10. What news did the Muslims receive in the month of Shaban 2 H?
In the month of Shaban 2 H, the Muslims learnt that a great trade caravan had started on its journey from Syria and would be passing Madinah a few weeks later.
11. Give a brief description of the trade caravan led by Abu Sufyan?
The trade caravan led by Abu Sufyan consisted of 1000 camels. The merchandise was worth 50,000 dinars. Everyone in Makkah had a share in it. Everyone in Makkah was, therefore, concerned about its safety. About 70 men accompanied it.
12. Why did Abu Sufyan send a fast-riding messenger to Makkah? What was its
Abu Sufyan realised that the Muslims were planning to ‘attack’ his caravan. He sent out a fast-riding messenger to Makkah with an urgent request to cover the area of danger. The result of this was the mustering of a powerful army.
13. How strong was the Makkan army?
The Makkan army consisted of about 1000 armoured soldiers, 700 camels and over 100 horses.